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  • Tropical cyclone return period wind hazard layers developed using the Tropical Cyclone Risk Model. The hazard layers are derived from a catalogue of synthetic tropical cyclone events representing 10000 years of activity. Annual maxima are evaluated from the catalogue and used to fit a generalised extreme value distribution at each grid point.

  • The Australian Flood Studies Database is available on line by Geoscience Australia via the Australian Flood Risk Information Portal. The database provides metadata on Australian flood studies and information on flood risk with a digital version where available. The purpose of the document is to guide new users in data entry and uploading of flood studies to a level acceptable for inclusion in the database.

  • Geographical information systems (GIS) have been used to model building flood damage in South East Queensland. The research shows that if a flood with a 1% annual exceedence probability (AEP) occurred simultaneously in all rivers in the region, 47 000 properties would be inundated, with about half of the properties likely to experience overfloor flooding. 90% of affected properties are located in the Brisbane-Bremer River system and the Gold Coast catchment. 89% of properties affected by flooding are residential. Nearly 60% of the residential flood damage is located in the Brisbane-Bremer River system, with damage estimated to be highest in those areas which historically have suffered high flood losses. Equivalent average damage per residential building is highest in the Gold Coast catchment. If the cost of the actual damages were to be spread among all residential buildings in South East Queensland, than the equivalent flood damage would be 1.09% damage from a flood with a 1% AEP.

  • Tsunamis are unpredictable and infrequent but potentially large impact natural disasters. To prepare, mitigate and prevent losses from tsunamis, probabilistic hazard and risk analysis methods have been developed and have proved useful. However, large gaps and uncertainties still exist and many steps in the assessment methods lack information, theoretical foundation, or commonly accepted methods. Moreover, applied methods have very different levels of maturity, from already advanced probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for earthquake sources, to less mature probabilistic risk analysis. In this review we give an overview of the current state of probabilistic tsunami hazard and risk analysis. Identifying research gaps, we offer suggestions for future research directions. An extensive literature list allows for branching into diverse aspects of this scientific approach. Appeared online in Front. Earth Sci., 29 April 2021

  • Geographic extent The Flinders Ranges region is located in South Australia to the north of Adelaide. The data in this model covers the majority of South Australia. Contents This VRML model contains DEM surface, satellite image, elevation image, surface geology image, gravity image, magnetic image, seismic stations and earthquake events mapped in their true three dimensional locations for the Flinders Ranges and surrounding region. Software required Geoscience Australia's X3D and older VRML models require the free plugin BS Contact and work best with the web browser Internet Explorer version 6 or higher. Size Approximately 4MB Startup download only 200KB - remaining data downloads when layers are selected.

  • Australia is exposed to a wide range of natural hazards, including earthquake, cyclone, landslide, flood, storm surge, severe wind, bushfire, coastal erosion, hail storm and drought. How each person will fare in the event of a natural hazard is influenced not just by exposure to infrastructure, but also by personal attributes, community support, access to resources and governmental management. This network of factors affecting social vulnerability to natural hazards, combined with the complex linkages found in cities and the behaviour of the hazard itself, all contribute to the development of a risk assessment.

  • The Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) System plays a primary alerting role for global earthquake disasters as part of the U.S. Geological Surveys (USGS) response protocol. PAGER monitors the USGSs near real-time U.S. and global earthquake origins and automatically identifies events that are of societal importance, well in advance of ground-truth or news accounts. Current PAGER notifications and Web pages estimate the population exposed to each seismic intensity level. In addition to being a useful indicator of potential impact, PAGERs intensity/exposure display provides a new standard in the dissemination of rapid earthquake information. This paper provides an overview of the PAGER system, both of its current capabilities and ongoing research and development. Specifically, this paper summarises the underpinning models and datasets developed to improve PAGER exposure and impact modules. These include: global site-response models, enhanced earthquake source and loss databases, the Atlas of ShakeMaps and population exposure catalogue, and a global building inventory. The use of these methods and databases are demonstrated using the USGSs response to the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. Finally, we comment on the potential use of PAGER tools and databases for improved near real-time earthquake alerting in Australia.

  • Historical settlement patterns have resulted in Australia having most of its major city developments situated on the coastline. Storm tides are a major natural hazard for coastal regions. Severe storms and cyclones contribute 29 per cent of the total damage cost from natural hazards to the Australian community. In 1999 prices, this amounts to A$40 billion during the period 1967 to 1999 (including the cost of deaths and injuries). A storm surge is an increase in coastal water levels well above the normal high tide. If the storm surge is combined with daily tidal variation, the combined water level is called the storm tide. When the resulting storm tide exceeds the normal tidal range, local beach topography will dictate whether significant coastal inundation will occur.

  • A key recommendation of the Council of Australian Governments review into natural disaster management arrangements in Australia is that a five-year national program of systematic and rigorous disaster risk assessments be developed and implemented. This process requires the construction of national databases and standardised methods and models that allow objective comparison of risks between regions and across hazards. A significant component of this process is the completion and delivery of a series of national earthquake risk assessments. The need for an improved understanding of earthquake ground shaking in Australia was recognised following the 1989 Newcastle earthquake, which resulted in 13 fatalities and A$4.5 billion in estimated losses. An enhanced capability to anticipate the impacts of such events will facilitate improved earthquake disaster mitigation and planning for Australian communities, and influence the development of relevant engineering codes and standards. To achieve this it is necessary to model earthquake events, the mechanisms by which earthquake energy dissipates, and the potential influence of variation in geological materials on the ground shaking. At present, national scale earthquake hazard products for Australia do not included the effect of regolith site response on ground shaking, and as such may provide inconsistent or inaccurate estimates of ground shaking in some areas. The development of the National Regolith Site Classification Map represents a significant advance in our ability to model the potential influence of near-surface geological materials on earthquake ground shaking, and therefore to assess earthquake hazard and risk in Australia. The National Regolith Site Classification Map presented here has been developed through the application of a pre-existing methodology which has been modified to suit Australian conditions. The changes include the development and application of an innovative method to account for weathering in bedrock geological units. To the extent that the data permits, site classification takes into account the age and physical properties of the geological materials and relates them to key geophysical parameters that most accurately represent the behaviour of these materials under the influence of earthquake ground motion. The compilation of data at both national and regional scales has led to the development of a multi-resolution tool that provides more detailed information in and around the major population centres. This same variation in spatial resolution does, however, make map sheet edge mismatches unavoidable. The National Regolith Site Classification Map provides a tool for estimating the regolith site response to ground shaking at any location in Australia. This product has potential implications for revision of earthquake-related Standards and Building Codes in Australia, particularly regarding the criteria used to classify sites according to ground shaking potential. When implemented within Geoscience Australia's National Earthquake Risk Model (EQRM) the National Regolith Site Classification Map and associated amplification factors represent fundamental components of the most rigorous available method for assessing earthquake risk in Australia.

  • A tropical cyclone (or hurricane in North America, typhoon in Asia) is an intense tropical low-pressure weather system where, in the southern hemisphere, winds circulate clockwise around the centre. Tropical cyclone development is complex, but researchers have identified three components of a tropical cyclone that make up the total cyclone hazard: strong winds, intense rainfall and induced ocean effects including extreme waves, currents, storm surge and resulting storm tide.