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  • The National Drilling Initiative (NDI) will manage and deliver drilling programs in multiple case study areas proposed by MinEx CRC’s partner geological survey organisations. The NDI vision is to drill multiple holes in a region to map the regional geology and architecture and define the potential for mineral systems in 3D. The areas shown in this web service describe the spatial locations of the study areas.

  • This Record forms part of a study under the Exploring For The Future (EFTF) program (2020-2024). The Residual Oil Zone Project was designed to understand and identify residual oil zones in Australia, with the aim of developing this potential hydrocarbon and CO2 geological storage resource through CO2–Enhanced Oil Recovery. The work presented here is a collaborative study between Geoscience Australia and GeoGem Consultants. Residual Oil Zones (ROZ) represent a new and potentially viable oil resource for Australia, while at the same time providing a means to use and store carbon dioxide (CO2) through the application of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR). These naturally water-flooded and water-saturated reservoirs, which contain a moderate amount of residual oil, can be associated with conventional fields (brownfields) or occur with no associated main pay zone (greenfields). Both types of ROZ are currently produced commercially through CO2-EOR in the USA, and are of growing interest internationally, but have not yet been explored in Australia. CO2-EOR has been in widespread practice in the USA since the oil shocks of the 1970’s. While tertiary CO2 injection usually targets oil remaining in fields that have been subject to water-flooding, there has been a parallel adoption of practices to recover vast amounts of paleo-oil that existed when many of these reservoirs were much fuller, before relatively recent (in geologic time) events caused structural and seal changes, resulting in natural water-flooding and/or migration of much of the oil out of the reservoir. The Permian Basin in Texas contains many examples where such Residual Oil Zones (ROZ’s) were found beneath conventional oil reservoirs. These ROZ are unproductive to conventional water flood operations but offer the possibility of an extra 9-15% recovery (of the ROZ OIP at discovery). This work reviews the lessons or insights that can be gained from the USA regarding ROZ field developments.

  • As part of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) Project a pilot study was conducted in the northern Surat Basin, Queensland, to test the ability of existing and new geoscientific data and technologies to further improve our understanding of hydrogeological systems within the GAB, in order to support responsible management of basin water resources. This report presents selected examples from the preliminary interpretation of modelled airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data acquired as part of this pilot study. The examples are selected to highlight key observations from the AEM with potential relevance to groundwater recharge and connectivity. Previous investigations in the northern Surat Basin have suggested that diffuse groundwater recharge rates are generally low (in the order of only a few millimetres per year) across large areas of the GAB intake beds—outcropping geological units which represent a pathway for rainfall to enter the aquifers—and that, within key aquifer units, recharge rates and volumes can be heterogeneous. Spatial variability in AEM conductivity responses is identified across different parts of the northern Surat Basin, including within the key Hutton Sandstone aquifer. Consistent with findings from other studies, this variability is interpreted as potential lithological heterogeneity, which may contribute to reduced volumes of groundwater entering the deeper aquifer. The influence of geological structure on aquifer geometry is also examined. Larger structural zones are seen to influence both pre- and post-depositional architecture, including the presence, thickness and dip of hydrogeological units (or parts thereof). Folds and faults within the Surat Basin sequences are, in places, seen as potential groundwater divides which may contribute to compartmentalisation of aquifers. Discrete faults have the potential to influence inter-aquifer connectivity. The examples presented here demonstrate the utility of AEM models, in conjunction with other appropriate geophysical and geological data, for characterising potential recharge areas and pathways within the main GAB aquifer units, by helping to better define aquifer geometry, lithological heterogeneity and possible structural controls. Such assessments have the potential to further improve our understanding of groundwater recharge and flow path variability at local to regional scales. Acquisition of broader AEM data coverage across groundwater recharge areas, along with complementary geophysical, geological and hydrogeological data, would further assist in quantifying recharge variability, facilitating revised water balance estimates for the basin and thereby supporting GAB water resource management and policy decision-making.

  • Background This is a sub-product of Geoscience Australia Sentinel-2A MSI Analysis Ready Data Collection 3 - DEA Surface Reflectance 3 (Sentinel-2A). See the parent product for more information. The contextual information related to a dataset is just as valuable as the data itself. This information, also known as data provenance or data lineage, includes details such as the data’s origins, derivations, methodology and processes. It allows the data to be replicated and increases the reliability of derivative applications. Data that is well-labelled and rich in spectral, spatial and temporal attribution can allow users to investigate patterns through space and time. Users are able to gain a deeper understanding of the data environment, which could potentially pave the way for future forecasting and early warning systems. The surface reflectance data produced by NBART requires accurate and reliable data provenance. Attribution labels, such as the location of cloud and cloud shadow pixels, can be used to mask out these particular features from the surface reflectance analysis, or used as training data for machine learning algorithms. Additionally, the capacity to automatically exclude or include pre-identified pixels could assist with emerging multi-temporal and machine learning analysis techniques. What this product offers This product contains a range of pixel-level observation attributes (OA) derived from satellite observation, providing rich data provenance: - null pixels - clear pixels - cloud pixels - cloud shadow pixels - snow pixels - water pixels - spectrally contiguous pixels - terrain shaded pixels It also features the following pixel-level information pertaining to satellite, solar and sensing geometries: - solar zenith - solar azimuth - satellite view - incident angle - exiting angle - azimuthal incident - azimuthal exiting - relative azimuth - timedelta

  • This service provides header and observation data for gravity stations located throughout continental Australia and Remote Offshore Territories. Data sources include the Australian National Gravity Database (ANGD) and the Australian Fundamental Gravity Network (AFGN) maintained by Geoscience Australia (GA). Data has been obtained by Surveyors, Commonwealth and state/territory Governments, private companies, and educational institutions. Gravity data measures small changes in gravity due to changes in the density of rocks beneath the Earth's surface. The data collected are processed via standard methods to ensure the response recorded is that due only to the rocks in the ground. The results produce datasets that can be interpreted to reveal the geological structure of the sub-surface. The processed data is checked for quality by GA geophysicists to ensure that the final data released by GA are fit-for-purpose.

  • <b>Background:</b> The European Space Agency (ESA) has operated the medium resolution satellites - Sentinel-2 series (Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B) since 2015. The spectral bands and spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 are similar to those of Landsat series, but Sentinel-2 has a higher revisit frequency and spatial coverage. A combination of Sentinel-2 and Landsat data can provide good spatial and temporal coverage of the Earth's surface and provide useful information to monitor environmental resources, such as agricultural production and mining activities, over time. However, the raw remotely sensed data received by these satellites in the solar spectral range do not directly characterise the underlying reflectance of surface objects. The data are modified by the atmosphere and variation of solar and sensor positions as well as surface anisotropic conditions. To make accurate comparisons of imagery acquired at different times, seasons and geographic locations and detect the change of surface, it is necessary to remove/reduce these effects to ensure the data are consistent and can be compared over time. <b>What this product offers:</b> This product takes Sentinel-2B imagery captured over the Australian continent and corrects for inconsistencies across land and coastal fringes. The result is accurate and standardised surface reflectance data, which is instrumental in identifying and quantifying environmental change. The imagery is captured using the Multispectral Instrument (MSI) sensor aboard Sentinel-2B. This product is a single, cohesive Analysis Ready Data (ARD) package, which allows the analysis of surface reflectance data as is, without the need to apply additional corrections. It contains two sub-products that provide corrections or attribution information: - DEA Surface Reflectance NBART(Sentinel-2B MSI) - Geoscience Australia Sentinel-2B MSI NBART Collection 3 - DEA Surface Reflectance OA(Sentinel-2B MSI) - Geoscience Australia Sentinel-2B Observation Attributes Collection 3 The resolution is a 10/20/60 m grid based on the ESA Level 1C archive. <b>Applications:,</b> - The development of derivative products to monitor land, inland waterways and coastal features, such as: - urban growth - coastal habitats - mining activities - agricultural activity (e.g. pastoral, irrigated cropping, rain-fed cropping) - water extent - The development of refined information products, such as: - areal units of detected surface water - areal units of deforestation - yield predictions of agricultural parcels - Compliance surveys - Emergency management This Collection 3 (C3) product and has been created by reprocessing Collection 1 (C1) and making improvements to the processing pipeline and packaging. <b>Packaging updates include: </b> - Open Data Cube (ODC) eo3 metadata - metadata includes STAC fields to enable users to filter by fields such as tile ID or cloud cover percentage in applications such as ODC - additional STAC metadata file in JSON format - directory structure and file names that are consistent with Geoscience Australia’s Landsat C3 products. <b>Additional updates include:</b> - upgrading the spectral response function to result in a more accurate product. These new versions include minor updates, slight changes of the central wavelengths for band B02 of S2A and S2B, and band B01 of S2B, along with slight changes of the Full Width Half Maximum (FMWH) for most of the bands - correction of solar constant errors in the conversion between reflectance and radiance as well as in the atmospheric correction - an additional cloud mask layer (s2cloudless) - removal of NBAR layers - reduced spatial resolution of observation attribute layers to 20m resolution, with the contiguity layer being maintained at 10m - additional of GQA information to dataset metadata - removal of buffering from fmask layer - BRDF ancillary upgraded from MODIS BRDF C5 to MODIS BRDF C6 - Upgrading from MODTRAN 5.2 to MODTRAN 6. <b>The introduction of a maturity concept.</b> The Collection 3 product is comprised of data produced to varying degrees of maturity. The maturity of a dataset is dictated by the quality of the ancillary information, such as BRDF and atmospheric data, used to generate the product. The maturity levels are Near Real Time (NRT), Interim and Final. The maturity level is designated in the filename and in the metadata. - Near Real Time (NRT) is a rapid ARD product produced < 48 hours after image capture. - Interim ARD – If there are extended delays (>18 days) in delivery of inputs to the ARD model, interim production is utilised until the issue is resolved. - Final ARD - As the higher quality ancillary datasets become available, a “Final” version of the Sentinel 2 ARD data is produced, which replaces the NRT or interim product.

  • Background: The European Space Agency (ESA) has operated medium resolution satellites - Sentinel-2 series (Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B) since 2015. The spectral bands and spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 are similar to those of the Landsat series, but Sentinel-2 has a higher revisit frequency and spatial coverage. A combination of Sentinel-2 and Landsat data can provide good spatial and temporal coverage of the Earth's surface and provide useful information to monitor environmental resources over time, such as agricultural production and mining activities. However, the raw remotely sensed data received by these satellites in the solar spectral range do not directly characterise the underlying reflectance of surface objects. The data are modified by the atmosphere, variation of solar and sensor positions as well as surface anisotropic conditions. To make accurate comparisons of imagery acquired at different times, seasons and geographic locations, and detect the change of surface, it is necessary to remove/reduce these effects to ensure the data are consistent and can be compared over time. What this product offers: This product takes Sentinel-2A imagery captured over the Australian continent and corrects for inconsistencies across land and coastal fringes. The result is accurate and standardised surface reflectance data, which is instrumental in identifying and quantifying environmental change. The imagery is captured using the Multispectral Instrument (MSI) sensor aboard Sentinel-2A. This product is a single, cohesive Analysis Ready Data (ARD) package, which allows the analysis of surface reflectance data as is, without the need to apply additional corrections. It contains two sub-products that provide corrections or attribution information: - Geoscience Australia Sentinel-2A MSI NBART Collection 3 - Geoscience Australia Sentinel-2A Observation Attributes Collection 3 The resolution is a 10/20/60 m grid based on the ESA Level 1C archive. Applications: - The development of derivative products to monitor land, inland waterways and coastal features, such as: - urban growth - coastal habitats - mining activities - agricultural activity (e.g. pastoral, irrigated cropping, rain-fed cropping) - water extent - The development of refined information products, such as: - areal units of detected surface water - areal units of deforestation - yield predictions of agricultural parcels - Compliance surveys - Emergency management

  • The Geoscience Australia Rock Properties database stores the result measurements of scalar and vector petrophysical properties of rock and regolith specimens and hydrogeological data. Oracle database and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) web services. Links to Samples, Field Sites, Boreholes. <b>Value:</b> Essential for relating geophysical measurements to geology and hydrogeology and thereby constraining geological, geophysical and groundwater models of the Earth <b>Scope:</b> Data are sourced from all states and territories of Australia

  • Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data measure variations in the conductivity of the ground by transmitting an electromagnetic signal from a system attached to a plane or helicopter. Depending on the AEM system used and the sub-surface conditions, AEM techniques can detect variations in the conductivity of the ground to a depth of several hundred metres. The responses recorded are commonly caused by the presence of electrically conductive materials such as salt or saline water, graphite, clays and sulphide minerals. <b>Value:</b> Data used for interpreting the geologic structure of the subsurface. This work can be used for the assessment of resource potential. <b>Scope:</b> Systematic coverage of large portions of the Australian continent.

  • Mapped and projected extents of geology and geologic features in Australia, including: surface geology, regolith geology, solid geology, chronostratigraphic surfaces, and province boundaries. The database includes igneous, sedimentary and structural characteristics, age limits, parent and constituent units, relations to surrounding provinces, and mineral and petroleum resources. based on field observations interpretations of geophysics and borehole data. <b>Value:</b> Data used for understanding surface and near surface geology. The data can be used for a variety of purposes, including resource exploration, land use management, and environmental assessment. <b>Scope:</b> Australia and Australian Antarctic Territory