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  • Conodont Biostratigraphy of the upper Devonian reef complexes of the Canning Basin, Western Australia

  • 22-2/D52-09/2-6 Contour interval: 25

  • I50/B1-28 Vertical scale: 100

  • Several scenarios of an original 3D model based on the petroleum systems model of Fuji et al. (APPEA 2004) were simulated using the PetroMod 3D V.10 modeling software. In general the results of the modelling study presented here confirms the modelling results of Fuji et al. (2004) with respect to the timing of generation in the different sub-basins as well as present day maturity. The main differences between the work of Fuji et al. (2004) and the work presented here are based on the use of PhaseKinetic models for the individual source rock formations and the ensuing compositional predictions of the fluids in different fields. Source rock transformation ratios as well as the bulk generation rates indicate that the source rocks are presently still generating. The Central Swan Graben area is presently more mature than the other kitchen area of the Vulcan Sub-basin, the Cartier Trough. The locations of predicted accumulations coincide with the locations of most of the proven fields. In many cases accumulation sizes and predicted column heights are large, mainly due to the fact that the resolution of the numerical model is low which leaves rather large volumes of the cells to be filled. Modelling results predict a series of accumulations at locations which have, as yet, not been tested. However, most of them depend on fault closure, thus increasing exploration risk. The main risks as observed from this modelling exercise are: 1) source rock presence and definition, 2) definition of the traps, 3) resolution of the input model, 4) cap rock properties, which are still largely unconstrained. The different scenarios modelled show distinct variations with respect to predicted petroleum distribution as well as the physical properties of the accumulated fluids.

  • Much of the deep sea encompasses soft-sediment plains, with very few hard substrates for invertebrates to colonise. At first glance, these habitats seem barren, but they are actually teeming with life. Compared to organisms from shallow water, many animals here are quite small. In addition, most of the animals are infaunal, meaning they live within the sediment. During feeding and burrowing, these animals form a range of features called lebensspuren, defined as any type of sedimentary structure produced by a living organism. Sampling deep sea animals can be a challenge, and traditional methods of grabs and boxcores provide only a single snapshot of a small area to characterise broad regions. Underwater imagery facilitates the characterisation of biological communities over a larger area, but the quantification of biodiversity from video is often restricted to larger epifauna, thus reducing its utility to measure biodiversity in deep sea soft sediments where animals are often small or infaunal. High resolution still images provide an interesting avenue with which to quantify biological activity based on lebensspuren. In this study, we used thousands of still images taken along the edge of the Eastern and Western margins of Australia to identify and characterise deep-sea lebensppuren. The features identified were compiled into a Lebensspuren Directory (Section 7), and the data was used to correlate abiotic factors to lebensspuren and to valuate whether the quantification of lebensspuren from still photographs is an appropriate technique for broadly quantifying biological activity and diversity in the deep sea (Sections 2 - 6).