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  • The first RSTT model for Australia has been developed based on the Australian Seismological Reference Model (AuSREM) that was released in late 2012. The densely-gridded P and S wave distributions of the crust and upper mantle of AuSREM have been simplified and translated into the 7 layer crustal and upper mantle RSTT model. Travel times computed with this RSTT model are evaluated against travel times computed in full 3D through the AuSREM model to assess the impact of the approximations used by RSTT. Location estimates of 5 ground truth earthquakes (GT1, GT2 and GT5) using the global ak135 reference model, the RSTT model and the full 3D travel times are compared. It is found that the RSTT model can reproduce the 3D travel times fairly accurately within its distance of applicability, thereby improving location estimates compared to using a global travel time model like ak135. However the benefit of using RSTT for locating Australian earthquakes is far less than using full 3D travel times, mainly because most stations tend to be further away from the source than the distance of RSTT applicability.

  • Receiver function studies of Northern Sumatra T. Volti and A. Gorbatov Geoscience Australia, GPO Box 378 Canberra ACT 2601 Australia The Northern Sumatra subduction zone is distinguished by the occurrence of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman megathrust earthquake and has a peculiar subduction of two major bathymetric structures; the Investigator fracture zone and the Wharton fossil ridge. Four stations in Northern Sumatra (BSI, PSI, PPI, GSI) and two stations in Malaysia (KUM and KOM) have been selected to construct migrated images based on receiver functions (RF) in order to study Earth structure and subduction processes in the region. Waveforms from 304 teleseismic earthquakes with Mb >5.5 and a distance range of 30º to 95º recorded from April 2006 to December 2008 were used for the analysis. The number of RF for each station varies from 20 to 192 depending on the signal/noise ratio. The computed RF clearly show pS conversions at major seismic velocity discontinuities associated with the subduction process where the Moho is visible at 5.5, 4, 3.5, and 2 sec for BSI, PSI, PPI, and GSI, respectively. RF for KUM and KOM have only conversions at the Moho near ~4 sec. The subducted slab is visible below Sumatra as a positive amplitude conversion preceded by a negative one, which we interpret as a low-velocity structure above the subducted slab. RF for PSI located at Toba supervolcano reveal pockets of low-velocity zones extending from a ~50 km depth down to the subducted slab. Forward modellings of RF suggest that seismic velocity contrasts can reach ~18% that is in accordance with previous local tomographic studies.

  • Scientific data are being generated at an ever increasing rate. Existing volumes of data can no longer be effectively processed by humans, and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of standardised machine readable formats and interfaces. Although there is also a growing need to share data, information and services across multiple disciplines, many standards currently being developed tend to be discipline specific. To enable cross-disciplinary research a more modular approach to standards development is required so that common components (e.g., location, units of measure, geometric shape, instrument type, etc) can be identified and standardised across all disciplines. Already international standards bodies such as ISO and OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) are well advanced in developing technical standards that are applicable for interchange of some of these common components such as GML (Geography Markup Language), Observations and Measurements Encoding Standard, SensorML, Spatial Coordinate Systems, Metadata Standards, etc. However the path for developing the remaining discipline specific and discipline independent standards is less coordinated. There is a clear lack of infrastructure and governance not only for the development of the required standards but also for storage, maintenance and extension of these standards over time. There is also no formal mechanism to harmonise decisions made by the various scientific disciplines to avoid unwanted overlap. The National Committee for Data in Science (NCDS) was established in 2008 by the Australian Academy of Science to provide an interdisciplinary focus for scientifc data management. In 2008 an informal request from the NCDS was put to the international Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) to consider taking on a new coordination role on issues related to the development and governance of standards required for the discovery of, and access to digital scientific data.

  • Three seismic lines (10GA-CP1, 10GA-CP2 and 10GA-CP3), which cross north to south across the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia, have recently been collected by Geoscience Australia, ANSIR and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The interpretation of these seismic lines is aimed at providing insight into the geologic structure of the Capricorn Orogen and to explore the relationship between the Pilbara and Yilgarn cratons. To aid in further interpretation and to add value to the seismic data an analysis of the available potential field data (gravity and magnetics) has also been undertaken. A range of geophysical data analysis techniques have been applied and include: multi-scale edge detection (worms), forward modelling and 3D inversion. By applying all three analysis techniques to the potential-field data major trends, contrasting properties and regional blocks relating to the subsurface geology have been determined, in turn, allowing for a detailed comparison with the seismic interpretation. Note that all results referred to in this abstract are preliminary and subject to change.

  • Extended abstract to accompany oral conference presentation. Full version of the short abstract (GEOCAT 70799).

  • The GA Animator Software is a tool used to create high quality fly-through animations of geoscience data for internal and external stakeholders. It is build using the NASA World Wind Java SDK, as a companion tool to the publicly available 3D Data Viewer.

  • Airborne hyperspectral data covering about 2500 km2 were obtained from the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia), which is highly prospective for Archean Au as well as komatiite associated Fe-Ni sulphide mineralisation. In this project hyperspectral airborne data allowed not only the remote mapping of mafic and ultramafic rocks, which are among the main host rocks for Archean Au deposits in the study area, but also the remote mapping of hydrothermal alteration patterns and various geochemical signatures related to the structurally controlled Au mineralisation down to a 4.5 m pixel size. We can reconstruct fluid pathways and their intersections with steep physicochemical gradients, where Au deposition presumably took place, by combining hyperspectral remote sensing with hyperspectral drill core data in 3D mineral maps. White mica mineral maps as well as mineral maps based on the abundance and composition of MgOH and FeOH bearing silicates are the main products for a semi-quantitative assessment of the key alteration minerals in this project. In the southern Selwyn Range, Mount Isa Inlier, Queensland, hyperspectral mineral maps, such as "ferric oxide abundance", "white mica abundance" and "white mica composition", were integrated with geophysical datasets (total magnetic intensity, ternary radiometric imagery). The integration of the datasets enabled us to construct a comprehensive fluid flow model contributing to our understanding of iron-oxide Cu-Au deposits in this region, identifying the source, pathway and depositional sites, which are in good accordance with known deposits.

  • The northern Perth Basin is an under-explored part of the southwest continental margin of Australia. Parts of this basin have proven hydrocarbon potential. The basin is extensively covered by mostly 2D seismic reflection data and marine gravity and magnetic data. The seismic data helps to resolve the structural framework of the basin, but in deepwater regions, the basement-cover contact and deeper basement structure are generally not well imaged. To help overcome this limitation, integrated 3D gravity modelling was used to investigate crustal structure in onshore and offshore parts of the basin. Such modelling also relies on knowledge of crustal thickness variations, but these variations too are poorly constrained in this area. Multiple models were constructed in which the seismic data were used to fix the geometry of sedimentary layers and the fit to observed gravity was examined for various different scenarios of Moho geometry. These scenarios included: 1) a Moho defined by Airy isostatic balance, 2) a Moho based on independently-published Australia-wide gravity inversion, and 3) attempts to remove the Moho gravity effect by subtracting a long-wavelength regional trend defined by GRACE/GOCE satellite data. The modelling results suggest that the best fit to observed gravity is achieved for a model in which the thickness of the crystalline crust remains roughly constant (i.e. deeper Moho under sediment depocentres) for all but the outermost parts of the basin. This finding has implications for understanding the evolution of the Perth Basin, but remains susceptible to uncertainties in sediment thickness.

  • Preliminary compilation of data in the onshore Carptentaria Basin, Northern Territory. This basin, previously named the Dunmarra Basin, is poorly understood. This Record details the compilation of data in 3D for the basin. Data included are surface geological mapping, drillholes, gravity, magnetic, radiometric, visible LANDSAT, seismic reflection and digital elevation data.

  • Significant volumes of Big Lake Suite granodiorite intrude basement in the Cooper Basin region of central Australia. Thick sedimentary sequences in the Cooper and overlying Eromanga Basins provide a thermal blanketing effect resulting in elevated temperatures at depth. 3D geological maps over the region have been produced from geologically constrained 3D inversions of gravity data. The inverted density models delineate regions of low density within the basement that are inferred to be granitic bodies. The 3D maps include potential heat sources and thermally insulating cover, the key elements in generating an EGS play. A region was extracted from the Cooper Basin 3D map and used as a test region for modelling the temperature, heat flow and geothermal gradients. The test region was populated with thermal properties and boundary conditions were approximated. Temperatures were generated on a discretised version of the model within GeoModeller and were solved by explicit finite difference approximation using a Gauss-Seidel iterative scheme. An enhancement of the GeoModeller software is to allow the input thermal properties to be specified as distribution functions. Multiple thermal simulations using Monte-Carlo methods would be carried out from the supplied distributions. Statistical methods will be used to yield the probability estimates of the in-situ heat resource, reducing the risk of exploring for heat. A fast solver for the inhomogeneous heat equation in free space has been developed using Fourier domain techniques. Typical speed-ups for this strategy over the conventional solvers is better than 1000 to 1.