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  • Australia has a rich uranium endowment. Amongst other favourable geological conditions for the formation of uranium deposits, such as the presence of intracratonic sedimentary basins, Australia is host to widespread uranium-rich felsic igneous rocks spanning a wide range of geological time. Many known uranium deposits have an empirical spatial relationship with such rocks. While formation of some mineral systems is closely associated with the emplacement of uranium-rich felsic magmas (e.g., the super-giant Olympic Dam deposit), most other systems have resulted from subsequent low temperature processes occurring in spatial proximity to these rocks. Approximately 91% of Australia's initial in-ground resources of uranium occur in two main types of deposits: iron-oxide breccia complex deposits (~ 75%) and unconformity-related deposits (~ 16%). Other significant resources are associated with sandstone- (~ 5%) and calcrete-hosted (~ 1%) deposits. By comparison, uranium deposits associated with orthomagmatic and magmatic-hydrothermal uranium systems are rare. Given the paucity of modern exploration and the favourable geological conditions with Australia, there remains significant potential for undiscovered uranium deposits. This paper discusses mineral potential of magmatic- and basin-related uranium systems.

  • An assumption of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment is that within each source zone the random earthquakes of the past are considered a good predictor of future seismicity. Random earthquakes suggest a Poisson process. If the source zone does not follow a Poisson process then the resulting PSHA might not be valid. The tectonics of a region will effect its spatial distributions. Earthquakes occurring on a single fault, or uniformly distributed, or clustered or random will each have a distinctive spatial distribution. Here we describe a method for both identifying and delineating earthquake clusters and then characterising them. We divide the region into N cells and by counting the number of earthquakes in each cell we obtain a distribution of the number of cells versus the number of earthquakes per cell. This can then be compared to the theoretical Poisson distribution. Areas which deviate from the theoretical Poisson distribution, can then be delineated. This suggests a statistically robust method for determining source zones. Preliminary results suggest that areas of clustering (eg. SWSZ) can also be modelled as a Poisson process which differs from the larger regional Poisson process. The effect of aftershocks and swarms are also investigated.

  • CONTROL ID: 1813538 TITLE: 'Big Data' can make a big difference: Applying Big Data to National Scale Change Analyses AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Norman Roland Mueller1, Steven Curnow1, Rachel Melrose1, Matthew Brian John Purss1, Adam Lewis1 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Geoscience Australia, Canberra, ACT, Australia. ABSTRACT BODY: The traditional method of change detection in remote sensing is based on acquiring a pair of images and conducting a set of analyses to determine what is different between them. The end result is a single change analysis for a single time period. While this may be repeated several times, it is generally a time consuming, often manual process providing a series of snapshots of change. As datasets become larger, and time series analyses become more sophisticated, these traditional methods of analysis are unviable. The Geoscience Australia 'Data Cube' provides a 25-year time series of all Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 data for the entire Australian continent. Each image is orthorectified to a standard set of pixel locations and is fully calibrated to a measure of surface reflectance (the 25m Australian Reflectance Grid [ARG25]). These surface reflectance measurements are directly comparable, between different scenes, and regardless of whether they are sourced from the Landsat-5 TM instrument or the Landsat-7 ETM+. The advantage of the Data Cube environment lies in the ability to apply an algorithm to every pixel across Australia (some 1013 pixels) in a consistent way, enabling change analysis for every acquired observation. This provides a framework to analyse change through time on a scene to scene basis, and across national-scale areas for the entire duration of the archive. Two examples of applications of the Data Cube are described here: surface water extent mapping across Australia; and vegetation condition mapping across the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia's largest river system.. Ongoing water mapping and vegetation condition mapping is required by the Australian government to produce information products for a range of requirements including ecological monitoring and emergency management risk planning. With a 25 year archive of Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 imagery hosted on an efficient High Performance Computing (HPC) environment, high speed analyses of long time series for water and vegetation condition are now viable. www.ga.gov.au KEYWORDS: 1906 INFORMATICS Computational models, algorithms, 1988 INFORMATICS Temporal analysis and representation, 1980 INFORMATICS Spatial analysis and representation. (No Image Selected) (No Table Selected) Additional Details Previously Presented Material: Contact Details CONTACT (NAME ONLY): Norman Mueller CONTACT (E-MAIL ONLY): norman.mueller@ga.gov.au TITLE OF TEAM:

  • Since the 1989 Newcastle earthquake, the city of Newcastle, Australia, has become an extensive focus for earthquake hazard and risk assessment. The surficial geology varies between deeper alluvial deposits near the Hunter River, to shallower soils overlying weathered rock on the valley margins. Ambient vibration techniques, based on the dispersion property of surface waves in layered media, is one promising method for assessing the subsurface geophysical structure, in particular the shear-wave velocity (Vs). Using one such technique, the Spatial Auto-Correlation (SPAC) method, we characterise soil deposits at 23 sites in and around the city of Newcastle. Results show that values for soil overlying bedrock ranges from 200 m/s to 1000 m/s, with the higher velocity values observed in shallow soils which are relatively consolidated and far from river deposits. Bedrock depth varies from 6 to 56 m, but an accurate quantification is hampered by the low frequency picks (< 2 Hz) which are either unavailable or of dubious quality. Some shear-wave velocity profiles show two abrupt changes in Vs, the first ~ 4-15 m and the second ~19-56 m. Low Vs values are of particular interest as they may indicate areas of higher seismic hazard.

  • As part of initiatives by the Australian and Queensland Governments to support energy security and mineral exploration, a deep seismic reflection survey was conducted in 2007 to establish the architecture and geodynamic framework of north Queensland. With additional support from AuScope, nearly 1400 km of seismic data were acquired along four lines, extending from near Cloncurry in the west to almost the Queensland coast. Important results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include: (1) A major, west-dipping, Paleo-proterozoic (or older) crustal boundary, which we interpret as a suture, separates relatively homogenous, thick crust of the Mt Isa Province from thinner, two layered crust to the east. This boundary is also imaged by magnetotelluric data and 3D inversion of aeromagnetic and gravity data. (2) East of the Mt Isa Province the lower crust is highly reflective and has been subdivided into three mappable seismic provinces (Numil, Abingdon and Agwamin) which are not exposed at the surface. Nd model ages from granites sampled at the surface above the western Numil and central Abingdon Seismic Provinces have very similar Nd model ages, suggesting that both provinces may have had a very similar geological history. By contrast, granites sampled above the eastern Agwamin Seismic Province have much younger Nd model ages, implying a significantly younger component in the lower crust; we consider that the Agwamin Seismic Province contains a strong Grenvillean-age component.

  • After CO2 is injected into the saline aquifer, the formation water inside the porous media becomes more acidic. This will significantly affect the original chemical equilibrium underground, and induce or speed up various processes of dissolution and precipitation depending on the reservoir pressure, temperature and salinity of formation water. The Early Cretaceous Gage Sandstone has been identified as a potential reservoir unit suitable for large-scale CO2 storage in the offshore southern Perth Basin. This study assesses the contribution of mineralisation trapping to CO2 storage capacity of the Gage Sandstone through a comprehensive geochemical modelling.

  • Geoscience Australia (GA) has recently released regional airborne electromagnetic data (AEM) in two survey areas of the Pine Creek region. The Woolner Granite-Rum Jungle survey in the western part of the region was flown using TEMPESTTM and the Kombolgie survey in the eastern part was flown using VTEMTM. These data assist in mapping geological features deemed to be critical for fertile unconformity-related uranium and sandstone-hosted uranium systems. These mapped features in combination with other datasets are used to assess the prospectivity of uranium systems.

  • This final paper for the session presents the results of the new draft earthquake hazard assessment for Australia and compares them to the previous AS1170.4 hazard values. Draft hazard maps will be presented for several spectral periods (0.0, 0.2 and 1.0 s) at multiple return periods (500, 2500 and 10,000 years). These maps will be compared with both the current earthquake hazard used in AS1170.4 and with other assessments of earthquake hazard in Australia. In general the hazard in the draft map is higher in the western cratonic parts of Australia than it is in the eastern non-cratonic parts of Australia. Where regional source zones are included, peaks in hazard values in the map are generally comparable to those in the current AS1170.4 map. When seismicity 'hotspot zones are included, as described in the previous paper, several of them produce much higher hazard peaks than any in the AS1170.4 map. However, such hotspots do not affect as large an area as many of those in the current AS1170.4 map. Finally, hazard curves for different cities will also be presented and compared to those predicted by the method outlined in AS1170.4.

  • The inventory of over 200 fault scarps captured in GA's Australian neotectonics database has been used to estimate the maximum magnitude earthquake (Mmax) across the Stable Continental Regions (SCRs) of Australia. This was done by first grouping the scarps according to the spatial divisions described in the recently published neotectonics domain model and calculating the 75th percentile scarp length for each domain. The mean Mmax was then found by averaging the maximum magnitudes predicted from a range of different published relations. Results range between Mw 7.0-7.5±0.2. This suggests that potentially catastrophic earthquakes are possible Australia-wide. These data can form the basis for future seismic hazard assessments, including those for building design codes, both in Australia and analogous SCRs worldwide.

  • The aim of the NPE10 exercise is the continuation of the multi - technology approach started with NPE09. For NPE10, a simulated release of radionuclides was the trigger for the scenario in which an REB-listed seismo-acoustic event with ML between 3.0 and 4.8 was the source. Assumptions made were: A single seismo-acoustic signal-generating underground detonation event with continuous leak of noble gas, radionuclide detections only from simulated release. Using atmospheric transport modelling the IDC identified 48 candidate seismo-acoustic events from data fusion of the seismo-acoustic REBs with radionuclide detections. We were able to reduce the number of candidate seismo-acoustic point sources from 48 to 2 by firstly rejecting events that did not appear consistently in the data fusion bulletins; secondly, reducing the time-window under consideration through analysis of xenon isotope ratios; and thirdly, by clustering the remaining earthquakes and aftershocks and applying forward tracking to these (clustered) candidate events, using the Hy-split and ARGOS modelling tools. The two candidate events that were not screened by RN analysis were Wyoming REB events 6797924 (23-Oct) and 6797555 (24-Oct). Event 6797555 was identified as an earthquake on the basis of depth (identification of candidate depth phases at five teleseismic stations); regional Pn/Lg and mb:Ms - all indicating an earthquake source. Event 6797924, however, was not screened and from our analysis would constitute a candidate event for an On-Site Inspection under the Treaty.