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  • The main aim of this study is to use petroleum systems analysis to improve the understanding of the petroleum systems present on the Lawn Hill Platform of the Isa Superbasin. Part A of this report series reported the results of burial and thermal modelling of two wells (Desert Creek 1 and Egilabria 1). Results from the 1-D modelling help other aspects of interest such as the hydrocarbon generation potential and distribution of hydrocarbons by source rock which this publication presents. Modelling uncertainties are reported and described, highlighting knowledge gaps and areas for further work.

  • NDI Carrara 1 is a deep stratigraphic drill hole (~1751m) completed in 2020 as part of the MinEx CRC National Drilling Initiative (NDI) in collaboration with Geoscience Australia and the Northern Territory Geological Survey. It is the first test of the Carrara Sub-basin, a depocentre newly discovered in the South Nicholson region based on interpretation from seismic surveys (L210 in 2017 and L212 in 2019) recently acquired as part of the Exploring for the Future program. The drill hole intersected approximately 1100 m of Proterozoic sedimentary rocks uncomformably overlain by 630 m of Cambrian Georgina Basin carbonates. This report presents inorganic geochemical analyses undertaken by Geoscience Australia on selected rock samples, collected at roughly 4 m intervals.

  • This is a raster representing the base surface of the McBride Basalt Province, inferred from sparse data available, dominated by private water bore records. This interpretation was conducted by a hydrogeologist from Geoscience Australia. Caveats • This is just one model, based on sparse data and considerable palaeotopographic interpretation • This model relies on the input datasets being accurate. However it is noted that substantial uncertainty exists both in the location of private bores and the use of drillers’ logs for identifying stratigraphic contacts. • The location of palaeothalwegs is imprecise, and often it is only indicative of the presence of a palaeovalley. • The purpose of this model is for visualisation purposes, so should not be considered a definitive depth prediction dataset.

  • <p>Dataset "Detailed surface geology – Upper Burdekin basalt provinces", downloaded from the Queensland Spatial Catalogue in April 2017 and clipped to the Upper Burdekin basalt provinces. <p>The polygons in this dataset are a digital representation of the distribution or extent of geological units within the area. Polygons have a range of attributes including unit name, age, lithological description and an abbreviated symbol for use in labelling the polygons. These have been extracted from the Rock Units Table held in Department of Natural Resources and Mines MERLIN Database. <p>© State of Queensland (Department of Natural Resources and Mines) 2017 Creative Commons Attribution

  • Stratigraphic drill hole NDI Carrara 1 was drilled as a collaboration between Geoscience Australia (GA), the Northern Territory Geological Survey (NTGS) and the Mineral Exploration Cooperative Research Centre (MinEx CRC). It reached a total depth of 1751 m in late 2020 and is the first drill hole to intersect the undifferentiated Proterozoic rocks of the Carrara Sub-Basin. It intersected approximately 630 m of Cambrian Georgina Basin sedimentary rocks overlying the ~1100 m of Proterozoic carbonates, black shales and other siliciclastics of the Carrara Sub-Basin succession. The formational assignments of the Georgina Basin succession are preliminary and were assigned in the field. The units intersected comprise the Border Waterhole Formation (~531m to ~630m), which is overlain by the Currant Bush Limestone (~249m to ~531m), which in turn is overlain by the Camooweal Dolostone (0m to ~249m). Of these, only the lower 80% of the Currant Bush Limestone and the entire Border Waterhole Formation were cored. This report presents biostratigraphic results from macrofossil examination of NDI Carrara 1 core samples within the Georgina Basin section.

  • Geoscience Australia commissioned reprocessing of selected legacy 2D seismic data in the East Kimberley, onshore Bonaparte Basin as part of the Exploring for the Future (EFTF) program. Reprocessing of these data occurred between September 2017 and May 2018. Exploring for the Future (<a href="https://www.ga.gov.au/eftf/">https://www.ga.gov.au/eftf</a>) was a $100.5 million four-year (2016-20), Australian Government-funded program to provide a holistic picture of the potential mineral, energy and groundwater resources in northern Australia. The program has delivered new geoscience data, knowledge and decision support tools to support increased industry investment and sustainable economic development across the north. Groundwater is a critical resource that accounts for most water used across northern Australia. The groundwater component of the EFTF program focused on addressing groundwater resource knowledge gaps, to support future opportunities for economic development via irrigated agriculture, extractive industries and increased security of community water supplies. Through collaboration with State and Territory partners, the program undertook targeted regional investigations of groundwater systems and assessments of groundwater potential more broadly across the region. The program's activities, implemented by Geoscience Australia, involved application of innovative geoscience tools to collect, integrate and analyse a range of data. It includes geological and hydrogeological data, airborne and ground-based geophysical and hydrogeochemical surveys, remote sensing data as well as stratigraphic drilling. The new data and better understanding of groundwater systems also helps inform decision making about groundwater use to protect environmental and cultural assets. These outcomes strengthen investor confidence in resources and agricultural projects by de-risking groundwater in northern Australia. The package contains reprocessed data from ten surveys acquired between 1980 and 1997. In total 53 lines were reprocessed covering a fold area of approximately 618.9 line kilometres, with the objective to produce a modern industry standard 2D land seismic reflection dataset where possible from a selection of multiple legacy 2D data. The purpose of the reprocessing was twofold: 1) To image the near surface structural and stratigraphic configuration for linking to AEM data that is available in the Bonaparte Basin; and 2) To image the structure and stratigraphic architecture of the Paleozoic Bonaparte Basin. The dataset exhibits significant improvements in stack response in most of the reprocessed lines when final and legacy stacks were compared, especially in the shallow section. Optimum results were obtained from the noise attenuation workflows. A minimum processing flow was applied to BWA80, BWA81, and line BNT87-404 lines to avoid any signal leakage throughout the processing. Final data were delivered as minimum phase (care should be taken not to interpret zero crossings as geological boundaries), and final velocities produced a good match with the well checkshot velocities. The processing report from Down Under Geophysics is available for download with this release. Raw and processed data are available on request from <a href="mailto:clientservices@ga.gov.au&body=Ref: eCat 135578">clientservices@ga.gov.au</a> - Quote eCat# 135578. Processed stack SEG-Y files and ancillary data are available for download from this web page.

  • It is generally accepted that the near surface search space for mineral deposits in Australia and elsewhere in the world has been well explored and the frontier of exploration lies beneath post-mineralisation cover. The Exploring for the Future program aims to unlock this new search space in northern Australia and parts of southern Australia by reducing the technical risk of mineral exploration through the provision of innovative pre-competitive data and information. The first step to de-risk undercover exploration is to simply define the depth to prospective rocks as cover-thickness places first order constraints on the economic search space. With this aim in mind we present a preliminary model of the depth to pre-Neoproterozoic rocks between Tennant Creek and Mt Isa, an area of focused integrated studies of the Exploring for the Future program. This work aims to compliment recent and ongoing mineral potential assessments in this region, which suggest covered pre-Neoproterozoic rocks are prospective for iron oxide-copper-gold and sediment hosted base metal mineral deposits. Our model utilises a dasets of over eight four thousand point estimates of the depth to pre- Neoproterozoic strata from boreholes, reflection seismic profile interpretations and depth to magnetic top estimates mostly sourced from the new Estimates of Geological and Geophysical Surfaces database supplemented by the distribution of pre-Neoproterozoic strata outcrops. These constraints were objectively queried based on their reliability, subsampled at 0.05 degrees and gridded using an adjustable tension continuous curvature-surfacing algorithm. The result shows Palaeozoic cover-thickness generally increases away from outcrops with a notable exception east of Tennant Creek where cover-thickness is typically less than 250 m thick. Fortuitously, this region of shallow cover termed the East Tennant Ridge corresponds with a region recently assess to have potential to host iron oxide-copper-gold mineralisation.

  • Geoscience Australia’s Exploring for the Future (EFTF) program provides precompetitive information to inform decision-making by government, community and industry on the sustainable development of Australia's mineral, energy and groundwater resources. By gathering, analysing and interpreting new and existing precompetitive geoscience data and knowledge, we are building a national picture of Australia’s geology and resource potential. This leads to a strong economy, resilient society and sustainable environment for the benefit of all Australians. This includes supporting Australia’s transition to a low emissions economy, strong resources and agriculture sectors, and economic opportunities and social benefits for Australia’s regional and remote communities. The Exploring for the Future program, which commenced in 2016, is an eight year, $225m investment by the Australian Government. The deep stratigraphic drill hole, NDI Carrara 1 (~1751 m), was completed in December 2020 as part of the MinEx CRC National Drilling Initiative (NDI) in collaboration with Geoscience Australia and the Northern Territory Geological Survey. It is the first test of the Carrara Sub-basin, a depocentre newly discovered in the South Nicholson region based on interpretation from seismic surveys (L210 in 2017 and L212 in 2019) recently acquired as part of the Exploring for the Future program. The drill hole intersected approximately 1100 m of Proterozoic sedimentary rocks uncomformably overlain by 630 m of Cambrian Georgina Basin carbonates. This contractor report (FIT - Schlumberger) presents hydrocarbon and aqueous fluid inclusion petrology and data (micro-thermometry, salinities etc.) on four hydrocarbon-bearing calcite veins sampled from NDI Carrara 1 between 762.56-763.60 m depth, (under contract to, and fully funded by, Geoscience Australia as part of the Exploring for the Future program).

  • The preserved successions from the Mesoproterozoic Era (1600 to 1000 Ma) are a relatively understudied part of Australian geological evolution, especially considering that this era has a greater time span than the entire Phanerozoic. These rocks are mostly known in variably-preserved sedimentary basins overlying Paleoproterozoic or Archean cratons or at the margins of these cratons. Some metamorphosed equivalents occur within the orogens between or marginal to these cratons. Both energy and mineral resources are hosted in Australian Mesoproterozoic basins, including the highly-prospective organic rich shale units within the Beetaloo Sub-basin (Northern Territory), which form part of the Beetaloo Petroleum Supersystem. The primary aim for this record is to provide a consolidated state of knowledge of Australian basins or successions similar in age to that of the Mesoproterozoic Beetaloo Petroleum Supersystem. The findings of this report will assist prioritising future work, through improved geological understanding and resource prospectivity. This report presents an overview of 14 Mesoproterozoic-age sedimentary basins or successions and their current level of understanding, including location, basin architecture, stratigraphy and depositional environments, age constraints and mineral and energy resources. Basins or successions included in this record are unmetamorphosed or metamorphosed to very low-grade conditions. Recommendations are made for future work to address the main knowledge gaps identified from this review. While some of these basins have been the focus of recent intense study and data acquisition, the extent of knowledge varies broadly across basins. All basins reviewed in this record would benefit from further geochemical and geochronological analyses, and stratigraphic study to better understand the timing of depositional events and their correlation with nearby basins. Elucidation of the post-depositional history of alteration, migration of fluids and/or hydrocarbons would facilitate future exploration and resource evaluation.

  • Geoscience Australia commissioned ACIL Allen Consulting (ACIL Allen) to independently quantify the return on investment from six pre-competitive geoscience projects. These projects include three from the first phase of the $225 million Exploring for the Future (EFTF) program (2016-2024) and three pre-EFTF projects that were undertaken within the last two decades: the Mineral Potential Mapper Project (2012-2016), the Salt Lakes Study (2012-2014), and the Northeast Yilgarn Project (2001-2004). ACIL Allen has shown that the net benefits that have been estimated to flow as a result of Geoscience Australia’s spending on each of the projects are all positive, and in many cases, quite large. The return on investment analysis for the three EFTF case studies is published separately (https://pid.geoscience.gov.au/dataset/ga/132897) and the analysis of the three pre-EFTF case studies is available here in three standalone reports. An additional overview report synthesises the findings from all six case studies to assess the broader impact and value of pre-competitive geoscience projects. This synthesis includes projects undertaken by Geoscience Australia alone or in collaboration with state/territory geological surveys and other research organisations. ACIL Allen estimated that the net present value of benefits to Australia attributed to Geoscience Australia’s contribution to the three pre-EFTF projects are between $962 million and $2.4 billion, depending on the scenario considered. ACIL Allen also estimated that for every dollar invested by Geoscience Australia in these pre-EFTF projects, the Australian Government could gain a net benefit of at least $15 and potentially as much as $157. The analysis also shows that direct jobs associated with mining operations potentially arising from GA’s work on the six projects could number in the thousands. The ACIL Allen analysis also demonstrates that considerable time may elapse between the completion of a Geoscience Australia project and commencement of the mining of any resources that are identified. The three pre-EFTF projects examined suggest that it is around 10 years between the publication of Geoscience Australia’s results and the development of a mine. Therefore, If the development of any resources based on the findings of the EFTF projects follow similar timelines, then we could potentially expect to see new mines in operation sometime between 2026 and 2030.