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  • This Carnarvon Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Carnarvon Basin is a large sedimentary basin covering the western and north-western coast of Western Australia, stretching over 1,000 km from Geraldton to Karratha. It is predominantly offshore, with over 80% of the basin located in water depths of up to 4,500 m. The basin is elongated north to south and connects to the Perth Basin in the south and the offshore Canning Basin in the north-east. It is underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement rocks. The Carnarvon Basin consists of two distinct parts. The southern portion comprises onshore sub-basins with mainly Paleozoic sedimentary rocks extending up to 300 km inland, while the northern section consists of offshore sub-basins containing Mesozoic, Cenozoic, and Paleozoic sequences. The geological evolution of the Southern Carnarvon Basin was shaped by multiple extensional episodes related to the breakup of Gondwana and reactivation of Archean and Proterozoic structures. The collision between Australia and Eurasia in the Mid-Miocene caused significant fault reactivation and inversion. The onshore region experienced arid conditions, leading to the formation of calcrete, followed by alluvial and eolian deposition and continued calcareous deposition offshore. The Northern Carnarvon Basin contains up to 15,000 m of sedimentary infill, primarily composed of siliciclastic deltaic to marine sediments from the Triassic to Early Cretaceous and shelf carbonates from the Mid-Cretaceous to Cenozoic. The basin is a significant hydrocarbon province, with most of the resources found within Upper Triassic, Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs. The basin's development occurred during four successive periods of extension and thermal subsidence, resulting in the formation of various sub-basins and structural highs. Overall, the Carnarvon Basin is a geologically complex region with a rich sedimentary history and significant hydrocarbon resources. Exploration drilling has been ongoing since 1953, with numerous wells drilled to unlock its hydrocarbon potential.

  • This Southern Australian Fractured Rock Province dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. Crustal elements are crustal-scale geological regions primarily based on composite geophysical domains, each of which shows a distinctive pattern of magnetic and gravity anomalies. These elements generally relate to the basement, rather than the sedimentary basins. The South Australian Element comprises the Archean-Mesoproterozoic Gawler Craton and Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Curnamona Province, formed over billions of years through sedimentation, volcanism, magmatism, and metamorphism. The region experienced multiple continental-continent collisions, leading to the formation and breakup of supercontinents like Nuna and Rodinia, along with periods of extensional tectonism. Around 1,400 Ma, both the Gawler Craton and Curnamona Province were cratonised, and during the building of the Rodinia supercontinent (1,300-700 Ma), the present configuration of the region emerged. The area between the Gawler and Curnamona provinces contains Neoproterozoic to Holocene cover, including the Adelaide Superbasin, with the Barossa Complex as its basement, believed to be part of the Kimban Orogen. The breakup of Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic (830-600 Ma) resulted in mafic volcanism and extensional episodes, leading to the formation of the Adelaide Superbasin, characterized by marine rift and sag basins flanking the Gawler Craton and Curnamona Province. During the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, some tectonic structures were rejuvenated, while sedimentary cover obscured much of the now flatter terrain. Metamorphic facies in the region vary, with the Gawler and Curnamona provinces reaching granulite facies, while the Adelaide Superbasin achieved the amphibolite facies. The Gawler Craton contains rocks dating back to approximately 3,150 Ma, while the Curnamona Province contains rocks from 1,720 to 1,550 Ma. These ancient regions have undergone various deformation and metamorphic events but have remained relatively stable since around 1,450 Ma. The Adelaide Superbasin is a large sedimentary system formed during the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian, with distinct provinces. It started as an intracontinental rift system resulting from the breakup of Rodinia and transitioned into a passive margin basin in the southeast and a failed rift in the north. Later uplift and re-instigated rifting led to the deposition of thick Cambrian sediments overlying the Neoproterozoic rocks. Overlying basins include late Palaeozoic to Cenozoic formations, such as the Eromanga Basin and Lake Eyre Basin, which are not part of the assessment region but are adjacent to it.

  • This brief report updates the ‘Two-part Seabed Geomorphology classification scheme’ of Dove et al. (2016) and presents a new glossary (Part 1) of Seabed Morphology features. This Morphology glossary is intended to provide marine scientists with an accurate and robust way to characterise the seabed. Each glossary entry includes a feature definition and a representative schematic diagram to support clear and consistent classification. Feature terms and definitions are primarily drawn from the IHO guide for undersea feature names, which are herein modified and augmented with additional terms to ensure the final feature catalogue and glossary encompasses the diversity of morphologies observed at the seabed, while also minimising duplication and/or ambiguity. This updated classification system and new glossary are the result of a collaboration between marine geoscientists from marine mapping programmes/networks in Norway (MAREANO), Ireland (INFOMAR), UK (MAREMAP), and Australia (Geoscience Australia) (MIM-GA). A subsequent report will present the (Part 2) Geomorphology feature glossary. <b>Citation:</b> Dove, Dayton, Nanson, Rachel, Bjarnadóttir, Lilja R., Guinan, Janine, Gafeira, Joana, Post, Alix, Dolan, Margaret F.J., Stewart, Heather, Arosio, Riccardo, & Scott, Gill. (2020). <i>A two-part Seabed Geomorphology classification scheme (v.2); Part 1: Morphology Features Glossary.</i> Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4071939

  • The Exploring for the Future program Showcase 2022 was held on 8-10 August 2022. Day 2 (9th August) included talks on two themes moderated by Marina Costelloe. Data and toolbox theme: - Data acquisition progress - Dr Laura Gow - Quantitative tool development: HiQGA.jl and HiPerSeis - Dr Anandaroop Ray - Data delivery advances: Underpinned by careful data curation - Mark Webster Geology theme: - Mapping Australia's geology: From the surface down to great depths - Dr Marie-Aude Bonnardot - Towards a national understanding of Groundwater - Dr Hashim Carey - Uncovering buried frontiers: Tennant Creek to Mount Isa - Anthony Schofield and Dr Chris Carson - Lithospheric characterisation: Mapping the depths of the Australian tectonic plate - Dr Marcus Haynes You can access the recording of the talks from YouTube here: Showcase Day 2 – Part 1 https://youtu.be/US6C-xzMsnI Showcase Day 2 – Part 2 https://youtu.be/ILRLXbQNnic

  • This Surat Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Surat Basin is a sedimentary basin with approximately 2500 m of clastic fluvial, estuarine, coastal plain, and shallow marine sedimentary rocks, including sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, and coal. Deposition occurred over six cycles from the Early Jurassic to the Cretaceous, influenced by eustatic sea-level changes. Each cycle lasted 10 to 20 million years, ending around the mid-Cretaceous. Bounded by the Auburn Arch to the northeast and the New England Orogen to the southeast, it connects to the Clarence-Moreton Basin through the Kumbarilla Ridge. The Central Fold Belt forms its southern edge, while Cenozoic uplift caused erosion in the north. The basin's architecture is influenced by pre-existing faults and folds in the underlying Bowen Basin and the nature of the basement rocks from underlying orogenic complexes. Notable features include the north-trending Mimosa Syncline and Boomi Trough, overlying the deeper Taroom Trough of the Bowen Basin and extending southwards. The Surat Basin overlies older Permian to Triassic sedimentary basins like the Bowen and Gunnedah Basins, unconformably resting on various older basement rock terranes, such as the Lachlan Orogen, New England Orogen, and Thomson Orogen. Several Palaeozoic basement highs mark its boundaries, including the Eulo-Nebine Ridge in the west and the Kumbarilla Ridge in the east. Paleogene to Neogene sediments, like those from the Glendower Formation, cover parts of the Surat Basin. Remnant pediments and Cenozoic palaeovalleys incised into the basin have added complexity to its geological history and may influence aquifer connections. Overall, the Surat Basin's geological history is characterized by millions of years of sedimentation, tectonic activity, and erosion, contributing to its geological diversity and economic significance as a source of natural resources, including coal and natural gas.

  • This Officer Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Officer Basin is one of Australia's largest intra-cratonic sedimentary basins, spanning approximately 525,000 square kilometres. It contains a thick sedimentary sequence, ranging up to 10,000 m in depth, composed of rocks from the Neoproterozoic to Late Devonian periods. The basin features diverse depositional environments, including marine and non-marine siliclastic and carbonate units, evaporites, and minor volcanic deposits. The Neoproterozoic succession exhibits a range of depositional settings, including pro-delta to shelf, fluvial to shallow marine, lagoonal, glacial, and aeolian systems. The Cambrian to Ordovician sequence reveals evidence of fluvial, shallow marine, aeolian, sabkha to playa, and lacustrine settings. Volcanic rocks occur sporadically within the sequence, like the Cambrian Table Hill Volcanics in WA and the Neoproterozoic Cadlareena Volcanics in SA. The Officer Basin is considered a remnant of the larger Centralian Superbasin that formed during the Neoproterozoic, covering a vast region in central Australia. The Centralian Superbasin formed as a sag basin during the Tonian, accumulating fluvial, marine, and evaporitic sediments, followed by Neoproterozoic glacial deposits. The long-lasting Petermann Orogeny affected the earlier depositional systems, with extensive uplift along the northern margin of the basin leading to deposition of widespread fluvial and marine siliciclastic and carbonate sediments spanning the terminal Proterozoic to Late Cambrian. The Delamerian Orogeny renewed deposition and reactivated existing structures, and promoted extensive basaltic volcanism in the central and western regions of the basin. Later events are a poorly understood stage, though probably involved continued deposition until the Alice Springs Orogeny uplifted the region, terminating sedimentation in the Late Ordovician or Silurian. A suspected Late Devonian extensional event provided space for fluvial siliciclastic sediment deposition in the north-east. Today, the Officer Basin features four distinct structural zones: a marginal overthrust zone along the northern margin, a zone with rupturing by salt diapirs across the main depositional centre, a central thrusted zone, and a broad gently dipping shelf zone that shallows to the south.

  • This report presents key results from hydrogeological investigations in the Tennant Creek region, completed as part of Exploring for the Future (EFTF)—an eight year, $225 million Australian Government funded geoscience data and information acquisition program focused on better understanding the potential mineral, energy and groundwater resources across Australia. The EFTF Southern Stuart Corridor (SSC) Project area is located in the Northern Territory and extends in a north–south corridor from Tennant Creek to Alice Springs, encompassing four water control districts and a number of remote communities. Water allocation planning and agricultural expansion in the SSC is limited by a paucity of data and information regarding the volume and extent of groundwater resources and groundwater systems more generally. Geoscience Australia, in partnership with the Northern Territory Department of Environment and Natural Resources and Power and Water Corporation, undertook an extensive program of hydrogeological investigations in the SSC Project area between 2017 and 2019. Data acquisition included; helicopter airborne electromagnetic (AEM) and magnetic data; water bore drilling; ground-based and downhole geophysical data for mapping water content and defining geological formations; hydrochemistry for characterising groundwater systems; and landscape assessment to identify potential managed aquifer recharge (MAR) targets. This report focuses on the Tennant Creek region—part of the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. Investigations in this region utilised existing geological and geophysical data and information, which were applied in the interpretation and integration of AEM and ground-based geophysical data, as well as existing and newly acquired groundwater hydrochemical and isotope data. The AEM and borehole lithological data reveal the highly weathered (decomposed) nature of the geology, which is reflected in the hydrochemistry. These data offer revised parameters, such as lower bulk electrical conductivity values and increased potential aquifer volumes, for improved modelling of local groundwater systems. In many instances the groundwater is shown to be young and of relatively good quality (salinity generally <1000 mg/L total dissolved solids), with evidence that parts of the system are rapidly recharged by large rainfall events. The exception to this is in the Wiso Basin to the west of Tennant Creek. Here lower quality groundwater occurs extensively in the upper 100 m below ground level, but this may sit above potentially potable groundwater and that possibility should be investigated further. Faults are demonstrated to have significantly influenced the occurrence and distribution of weathered rocks and of groundwater, with implications for groundwater storage and movement. Previously unrecognised faults in the existing borefield areas should be investigated for their potential role in compartmentalising groundwater. Additionally a previously unrecognised sub-basin proximal to Tennant Creek may have potential as a groundwater resource or a target for MAR. This study has improved understanding of the quantity and character of existing groundwater resources in the region and identified a managed aquifer recharge target and potential new groundwater resources. The outcomes of the study support informed water management decisions and improved water security for communities; providing a basis for future economic investment and protection of environmental and cultural values in the Tennant Creek and broader Barkly region. Data and information related to the project are summarised in the conclusions of this report and are accessible via the EFTF portal (https://portal.ga.gov.au/).

  • Our knowledge of life at the Antarctic sea-bed has increased in the past decades with increasing ship-based surveys and monitoring sites, new technologies and data sharing. However, seafloor habitats and their communities exhibit high spatial variability and heterogeneity that limits our ability to assess the state of the Southern Ocean benthos on larger scales. The seafloor communities that inhabit the Antarctic shelf are often diversity hotspots. These habitats are important in the generation of ‘blue carbon’ and habitat for commercial fish species, for this reason we focus on these habitats. Many Southern Ocean seafloor habitats and their communities seem to be especially vulnerable to certain drivers of change including increasing ocean temperatures, iceberg scour, sea-ice melt, ocean acidification, fishing pressures, pollution and non-indigenous species. Some of the most vulnerable areas include those experiencing rapid regional warming and increased iceberg-scouring e.g. the West Antarctic Peninsula; where human activities and environmental conditions increase the potential for the establishment of non-indigenous species e.g. sub-Antarctic islands and tourist destinations and areas with fishing activities e.g. around South Georgia, Heard and MacDonald Islands. Vulnerable species include calcifying species susceptible to increasing ocean acidity as well as slow-growing habitat forming species that can be damaged by fishing gears e.g. sponges, bryozoan and coral species. Management regimes can protect seafloor habitats and key species from fishing activities but only if they consider specific traits, such as longevity, food availability, their physiological adaptation and rare or common occurrences. Ecosystem-based management practices and long-term protected areas may be the most effective in the preservation of vulnerable seafloor habitats. However, action is needed to reduce carbon emissions to limit the impact of increasing ocean temperatures and ocean acidification. We focus on outlining seafloor responses to drivers of change observed to date and projections for the future. We discuss the need for action to preserve seafloor habitats under climate change and fishing pressures. <b>Citation:</b> Brasier MJ, Barnes D, Bax N, Brandt A, Christianson AB, Constable AJ, Downey R, Figuerola B, Griffiths H, Gutt J, Lockhart S, Morley SA, Post AL, Van de Putte A, Saeedi H, Stark JS, Sumner M and Waller CL (2021) Responses of Southern Ocean Seafloor Habitats and Communities to Global and Local Drivers of Change. <i>Front. Mar. Sci.</i> 8:622721. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2021.622721

  • This Sydney Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Sydney Basin, part of the Sydney–Gunnedah–Bowen basin system, consists of rocks dating from the Late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic periods. The basin's formation began with extensional rifting during the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, leading to the creation of north-oriented half-grabens along Australia's eastern coast. A period of thermal relaxation in the mid Permian caused subsidence in the Bowen–Gunnedah–Sydney basin system, followed by thrusting of the New England Orogen from the Late Permian through the Triassic, forming a foreland basin. Deposition in the basin occurred in shallow marine, alluvial, and deltaic environments, resulting in a stratigraphic succession with syn-depositional folds and faults, mostly trending north to north-east. The Lapstone Monocline and Kurrajong Fault separate the Blue Mountains in the west from the Cumberland Plain in the central part of the basin. The Sydney Basin contains widespread coal deposits classified into geographic coalfield areas, including the Southern, Central, Western, Newcastle, and Hunter coalfields. These coalfields are primarily hosted within late Permian strata consisting of interbedded sandstone, coal, siltstone, and claystone units. The coal-bearing formations are grouped based on sub-basins, namely the Illawarra, Tomago, Newcastle, and Wittingham coal measures, underlain by volcanic and marine sedimentary rocks. Deposition within the basin ceased during the Triassic, and post-depositional igneous intrusions (commonly of Jurassic age) formed sills and laccoliths in various parts of the basin. The maximum burial depths for the basin's strata occurred during the early Cretaceous, reaching around 2,000 to 3,000 metres. Subsequent tectonic activity associated with the Tasman Rift extension in the Late Cretaceous and compressional events associated with the convergence between Australia and Indonesia in the Neogene led to uplift and erosion across the basin. These processes have allowed modern depositional environments to create small overlying sedimentary basins within major river valleys and estuaries, along the coast and offshore, and in several topographic depressions such as the Penrith, Fairfield and Botany basins in the area of the Cumberland Plain.

  • This flythrough highlights shallow and mesophotic seabed environments of Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs, located within the Lord Howe Marine Park. These reefs are unique because they are the southern-most platform reefs in the world and host a diverse range of tropical, sub-tropical and temperate marine species. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry data and seafloor imagery used in this flythrough was acquired by the Marine Biodiversity Hub, during the period 31 January to 6 February 2020 on board the Australian Maritime College vessel, TV Bluefin. Participating agencies included Geoscience Australia, the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies (University of Tasmania), the Australian Centre for Field Robotics (University of Sydney) through their involvement with the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), NSW Department of Primary Industries and Parks Australia. The specific aim of the survey was to fill knowledge gaps on the distribution, extent and structure of seabed habitats and associated sessile and mobile fauna in the lagoon and mesophotic shelves of Elizabeth (Recreational Use Zone) and Middleton (National Park Zone) Reefs, using a suite of national standard survey tools and best practice sampling procedures. Data acquisition for the project included seabed mapping using multibeam sonar (Kongsberg EM 2040C HD, 300 kHz), seabed imagery acquisition by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV Sirius and AUV Nimbus), sediment samples, and imagery of demersal fish communities by stereo-baited remote underwater videos (stereo-BRUVs). This work was undertaken by the Marine Biodiversity Hub, a collaborative partnership supported through funding from the Australian Government’s National Environmental Science Program (NESP), and Parks Australia. AUV data was sourced from Australia’s Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) – IMOS is enabled by the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS). It is operated by a consortium of institutions as an unincorporated joint venture, with the University of Tasmania as Lead Agent. This multimedia product is published with the permission of the CEO, Geoscience Australia.