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  • Australia has a significant number of surface sediment geochemical surveys that have been undertaken by industry and government over the past 50 years. These surveys represent a vast investment and have up to now only been able to be used in isolation, independently from one another. The key to maximising the full potential of these data and the information they provide for mineral exploration, environmental management and agricultural purposes is using all the surveys together, seamlessly. These disparate geochemical surveys not only sampled various landscape elements and analysed a range of size fractions, but also used multiple analytical techniques, instrument types and laboratories. The geochemical data from these surveys require levelling to eliminate, as much as possible, non-geological variation. Using a variety of methodologies, including reanalysis of both international standards and small subsets of samples from previous surveys, we have created a seamless surface geochemical map for northern Australia, from nine surveys with 15,605 samples. We tested our approach using two surveys from the southern Thomson Orogen, which demonstrated the successful removal of inter-laboratory and other analytical variation. Creation of the new combined and levelled northern Australian dataset paves the way for the application of statistical and data analytics techniques, such as principal component analysis and machine learning, thereby maximising the value of these legacy data holdings. The methodology documented here can be applied to additional geochemical datasets as they become available.

  • Soil geochemistry has been used to discover many mineral deposits in Australia. Further, it places first-order controls on soil fertility in agriculture and can be used to monitor the environment. With this utility in mind, an extensive soil sampling survey was undertaken as part of the Exploring for the Future program across the vast prospective exploration frontier between Tennant Creek and Mount Isa, dubbed the Northern Australia Geochemical Survey (NAGS). In all, 776 stream sediment outlet samples were collected at a depth of 0–10 cm, improving the density of the National Geochemical Survey of Australia by an order of magnitude, to one sample per ~500 km2. Two size fractions from each sample were analysed for a comprehensive suite of chemical elements after total digestion, Mobile Metal Ion™ (MMI) and aqua regia extractions, and fire assay. Here, we highlight the applicability of these results to base metal exploration, evaluation of soil fertility for agriculture and establishment of geochemical baselines. Our results reveal an association between elevated concentrations of commodity or pathfinder elements in the same or downstream catchments as known mineral deposits. Similar features elsewhere suggest new areas with potential for base metal discovery. <b>Citation:</b> Bastrakov, E.N. and Main, P.T., 2020. Northern Australia Geochemical Survey: a review of regional soil geochemical patterns. In: Czarnota, K., Roach, I., Abbott, S., Haynes, M., Kositcin, N., Ray, A. and Slatter, E. (eds.) Exploring for the Future: Extended Abstracts, Geoscience Australia, Canberra, 1–4.

  • This report presents the results of an elemental and carbon and oxygen isotope chemostratigraphy study on three historic wells; Kidson-1, Willara-1 and Samphire Marsh-1, from the southern Canning Basin, Western Australia. The objective of this study was to correlate the Early to Middle Ordovician sections of the three wells to each other and to wells with existing elemental and carbonate carbon isotope chemostratigraphy data from the Broome Platform, Kidson and Willara sub-basins, and the recently drilled and fully cored stratigraphic Waukarlycarly 1 well from the Waukarlycarly Embayment.

  • This report presents the results of chemostratigraphic analyses for samples of the Waukarlycarly 1 deep stratigraphic well drilled in in the Waukarlycarly Embayment of the Canning Basin. The drilling of the well was funded by Geoscience Australia’s Exploring for the Future initiative to improve the understanding of the sub-surface geology of this underexplored region of the southern Canning Basin. The well was drilled in partnership with Geological Survey of Western Australia (GSWA) as project operator. Waukarlycarly 1 reached a total depth (TD) of 2680.53 m at the end of November 2019 and was continuously cored from 580 mRT to TD. The work presented in this report constitutes part of the post-well data acquisition. An elemental and isotope chemostratigraphic study was carried out on 100 samples of the well to enable stratigraphic correlations to be made across the Canning Basin within the Ordovician section known to host source rocks. Nine chemostratigraphically distinct sedimentary packages are identified in the Waukarlycarly 1 well and five major chemical boundaries that may relate to unconformities, hiatal surfaces or sediment provenance changes are identified. The Ordovician sections in Waukarlycarly 1 have different chemical signals in comparison to those in other regional wells, suggestive of a different provenance for the origin of the sediments in the Waukarlycarly Embayment compared to the Kidson Sub-basin (Nicolay 1) and Broome Platform (Olympic 1).

  • This Record presents new U–Pb geochronological data, obtained via Sensitive High Resolution Ion Micro Probe (SHRIMP), from 43 samples of predominantly igneous rocks collected from the East Riverina region of the central Lachlan Orogen, New South Wales. The results presented herein correspond to the reporting period July 2016–June 2020. This work is part of an ongoing Geochronology Project, conducted by the Geological Survey of New South Wales (GSNSW) and Geoscience Australia (GA) under a National Collaborative Framework agreement, to better understand the geological evolution and mineral prospectivity of the central Lachlan Orogen in southern NSW (Bodorkos et al., 2013; 2015; 2016, 2018; Waltenberg et al., 2019).

  • A predictive model of weathering intensity or the degree of weathering has been generate over the Australian continent. The model has been generated using the Random Forest decision tree machine learning algorithm. The algorithm is used to establish predictive relationships between field estimates of the degree of weathering and a comprehensive suite of covariate or predictive datasets. The covariates used to generate the model include satellite imagery, terrain attributes, airborne radiometric imagery and mapped geology. The weathering intensity model is an estimate of the degree of surface weathering only. The interpretation of the weathering intensity is different for in-situ or residual landscapes compared with transported materials within depositional landscapes. In residual landscapes, weathering process are operating locally whereas in depositional landscapes the model is reflecting the degree of weathering either prior to erosion and subsequent deposition, or weathering of sediments after being deposited. The degree of surface weathering is particularly important in Australia where variations in weathering intensity correspond to the nature and distribution of regolith (weathered bedrock and sediments) which mantles approximately 90% of the Australian continent. The weathering intensity prediction has been generated using the Random Forest decision tree machine learning algorithm. The algorithm is used to establish predictive relationships between field estimates of the degree of weathering and a comprehensive suite of covariate or predictive datasets. The covariates used to generate the model include satellite imagery, terrain attributes, airborne radiometric imagery and mapped geology. Correlations between the training dataset and the covariates were explored through the generation of 300 random tree models. An r-squared correlation of 0.85 is reported using 5 K-fold cross-validation. The mean of the 300 models is used for predicting the weathering intensity and the uncertainty in the weathering intensity is estimated at each location via the standard deviation in the 300 model values. The predictive weathering intensity model is an estimate of the degree of surface weathering only. The interpretation of the weathering intensity is different for in-situ or residual landscapes compared with transported materials within depositional landscapes. In residual landscapes, weathering process are operating locally whereas in depositional landscapes the model is reflecting the degree of weathering either prior to erosion and subsequent deposition, or weathering of sediments after being deposited. The weathering intensity model has broad utility in assisting mineral exploration in variably weathered geochemical landscapes across the Australian continent, mapping chemical and physical attributes of soils in agricultural landscapes and in understanding the nature and distribution of weathering processes occurring within the upper regolith. <b>Value: </b>Weathering intensity is an important characteristic of the earth’s surface that has a significant influence on the chemical and physical properties of surface materials. Weathering intensity largely controls the degree to which primary minerals are altered to secondary components including clay minerals and oxides. In this context the weathering intensity model has broad application in understanding geomorphological and weathering processes, mapping soil/regolith and geology. <b>Scope: </b>National dataset which over time can be improved with additional sites for training and thematic datasets for prediction. <b>To view catalogue records associated with this collection click on the keyword HVC_144633 below</b>

  • As part of the Onshore Energy Systems Group’s program, organic maturation levels were determined using polar compounds from potential source rocks from the Georgina and Canning basins. The Early Paleozoic organic matter is devoid of the vitrinite maceral so unsuitable of the measurement of the industry-standard vitrinite reflectance (Ro%) measurement.

  • As part of the Onshore Energy Systems Group’s program, late gas (methane) and compositional kinetics (1-, 2-, 4- and 14-component (phase) kinetics) were undertaken by GeoS4, Germany. The phase kinetics approach is outlined in Appendix 1. This report provides the data required to access the shale gas potential of source rocks from the Georgina Basin, Australia.

  • This collection of documents detail various field techniques and processes that GA conduct. They are in conjunction with a series of Field Activity Technique Engagement Animations. The target audience are the communities that are impacted by our data acquisition activities. Field techniques in this collection include; • AEM fixed wing • AEM Helicopter • Borehole Geophysics • Goundwater sampling • Magnetotelluric (MT) surveys • Passive seismic surveys • Rapid Deployment Kits (RDKs) • Reflection seismic surveys • Surface Magnetic Resonance (SMR) surveys • Stratigraphic drilling

  • This animation shows how passive seismic surveys Work. It is part of a series of Field Activity Technique Engagement Animations. The target audience are the communities that are impacted by our data acquisition activities. There is no sound or voice over. The 2D animation includes a simplified view of what passive seismic equipment looks like, what the equipment measures and how the survey works.