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  • This Perth Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Perth Basin is a complex geological region extending along Australia's southwest margin for about 1,300 km. It comprises sub-basins, troughs, terraces, and shelves, hosting sedimentary rocks with coal, oil, gas, and significant groundwater resources. Off the coast of Western Australia, it reaches depths of up to 4,500 m, while its onshore part extends up to 90 km inland. The basin is bounded by the Yilgarn Craton to the east, and the Carnarvon and Bremer basins to the north and south. The basin's history involves two main rifting phases in the Permian and Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, creating 15 sub-basins with varying sedimentary thickness due to compartmentalization and fault reactivation. The sedimentary succession mainly comprises fluviatile Permian to Early Cretaceous rocks over Archean and Proterozoic basement blocks. Differences exist between northern and southern sequences, with the south being continental and the north featuring marine deposits. During the Permian, faulting and clastic sedimentation dominated, with marine transgressions in the north and continental rocks in the south. The Triassic saw a similar pattern, with the southern succession being continental and the northern succession showing marine deposits. The Kockatea Shale became a primary hydrocarbon source. The Jurassic period witnessed marine incursions in the central basin, while the Late Jurassic experienced sea level regression and deposition of the Yarragadee Formation. The Cretaceous saw the formation of the Early Cretaceous Parmelia Group due to heavy tectonic activity. The southern basin had a marine transgression leading to the Warnbro Group's deposition with valuable groundwater resources. Post-Cretaceous, Cenozoic deposits covered the basin with varying thicknesses. Overall, the Perth Basin's geological history reveals a diverse sedimentary record with economic and resource significance.

  • This Carnarvon Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Carnarvon Basin is a large sedimentary basin covering the western and north-western coast of Western Australia, stretching over 1,000 km from Geraldton to Karratha. It is predominantly offshore, with over 80% of the basin located in water depths of up to 4,500 m. The basin is elongated north to south and connects to the Perth Basin in the south and the offshore Canning Basin in the north-east. It is underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement rocks. The Carnarvon Basin consists of two distinct parts. The southern portion comprises onshore sub-basins with mainly Paleozoic sedimentary rocks extending up to 300 km inland, while the northern section consists of offshore sub-basins containing Mesozoic, Cenozoic, and Paleozoic sequences. The geological evolution of the Southern Carnarvon Basin was shaped by multiple extensional episodes related to the breakup of Gondwana and reactivation of Archean and Proterozoic structures. The collision between Australia and Eurasia in the Mid-Miocene caused significant fault reactivation and inversion. The onshore region experienced arid conditions, leading to the formation of calcrete, followed by alluvial and eolian deposition and continued calcareous deposition offshore. The Northern Carnarvon Basin contains up to 15,000 m of sedimentary infill, primarily composed of siliciclastic deltaic to marine sediments from the Triassic to Early Cretaceous and shelf carbonates from the Mid-Cretaceous to Cenozoic. The basin is a significant hydrocarbon province, with most of the resources found within Upper Triassic, Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs. The basin's development occurred during four successive periods of extension and thermal subsidence, resulting in the formation of various sub-basins and structural highs. Overall, the Carnarvon Basin is a geologically complex region with a rich sedimentary history and significant hydrocarbon resources. Exploration drilling has been ongoing since 1953, with numerous wells drilled to unlock its hydrocarbon potential.

  • This Money Shoal Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Money Shoal Basin is a large passive margin basin in northern Australia, mainly located in the offshore Arafura Sea. Its sedimentary succession spans from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic era, reaching a maximum thickness of 4,500 m in the northwest but thinner, less than 500 m, in central and eastern areas. The basin overlays the Neoproterozoic to Permian Arafura Basin and older Proterozoic rocks of the Pine Creek Orogen and McArthur Basin. It is bounded by the Bonaparte Basin to the west and the Carpentaria Basin to the east. The southern margin of the basin occurs onshore and is an erosional feature, although scattered remnant outliers of Money Shoal Basin rocks occur in isolated areas to the south and south-east of Darwin. The northern parts remain less explored, situated beyond Australia's maritime border with Indonesia. The basin's Mesozoic sediments were deposited during passive margin subsidence, and consequently remain relatively undeformed. Compressional tectonics were later initiated during the Cenozoic collision between the Indo-Australian plate and Southeast Asia, causing minor structural disruptions along the northwest margin of the Australian plate. Most of the sediments in the basin were deposited in shallow to marginal marine environments, with minor evidence for short-lived episodes of deltaic and fluvial deposition in some areas. The sedimentary packages in the offshore basin are divided into four groups: Troughton Group equivalent, Flamingo Group equivalent, Bathurst Island Group, and Woodbine Group equivalent. Onshore, the stratigraphic succession is limited to the Plover Formation equivalent, Bathurst Island Group, and the Eocene Van Diemen Sandstone. The Troughton Group extends from the Bonaparte Basin into western parts of the Money Shoal Basin, and chiefly consists of sandstone. The Flamingo Group, identified offshore, is considered equivalent to its Bonaparte Basin counterpart, characterized by sandstone and mudstone deposits, suggesting fluvial and deltaic settings. The Bathurst Island Group dominates onshore, composed mainly of fine-grained claystone, marl, and siltstone. The Woodbine Group is the uppermost unit, and is equivalent to the Woodbine Group of the Bonaparte Basin, consisting of Cenozoic deposits, primarily sandstone and claystone, indicating shallow marine and deltaic environments.

  • This Central Australian Fractured Rock Province dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Mesoproterozoic Musgrave Province is a significant geological feature in Central Australia, covering around 130,000 square kilometres across the tri-border region of Northern Territory, South Australia, and eastern Western Australia. It is characterized by east-west trending, metamorphosed igneous rocks, including granites, intrusions, and volcanics. The province experienced various deformation events, including the Mount West Orogeny and Musgravian Orogeny, resulting in the emplacement of granites and high-grade metamorphism. The Ngaanyatjarra Rift (1090 to 1040 Ma) is a failed intracontinental rift that formed due to magmatism-induced extension. The associated Giles Event was characterised by mafic to ultra-mafic intrusions (Giles Suite), bimodal volcanism and rift sedimentation (Bentley Supergroup), granitic intrusions and dyke emplacement. The Giles Event was followed by the emplacement of dolerite dykes including the Kullal Dyke Suite and the Amata Dolerite, approximately 1000 Ma and 825 Ma. The Peterman Orogeny played a crucial role in shaping the geological architecture of the Musgrave Province, forming the distinctive east-to-west-directed ranges.

  • This Bonaparte Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Bonaparte Basin is a large sedimentary basin off the north-west coast of Australia, encompassing both offshore and onshore areas. It has undergone multiple phases of extension, deposition, and tectonic inversion from the Paleozoic to Cenozoic periods. The Petrel Sub-basin, situated on the eastern margin, exhibits a north-west trending graben/syncline and exposes lower Paleozoic rocks onshore while transitioning to upper Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic sediments offshore. Onshore, the basin's geological structures reflect two dominant regimes: north to north-north-east trending Proterozoic basement structures associated with the Halls Creek Mobile Zone, and north-north-west trending basin structures linked to the rifting and later compressional reactivation of the Petrel Sub-basin. The Petrel Sub-basin has experienced growth and tectonic inversion since the Paleozoic, marked by volcanic activity, deposition of clastics and carbonates, and extension events. During the Devonian, extension occurred along faults in the Ningbing Range, leading to the deposition of clastics and carbonates. The Carboniferous to Permian period witnessed offshore extension associated with the Westralian Superbasin initiation, while onshore deposition continued in shallow marine and transitional environments. Thermal subsidence diminished in the Early Permian, and subsequent compression in the mid-Triassic to Early Jurassic reactivated faults, resulting in inversion anticlines and monoclines. After the Early Jurassic, the sub-basin experienced slow sag with predominantly offshore deposition. Post-Cretaceous deformation caused subsidence, and an Early Cretaceous transgression led to shallow marine conditions and the deposition of chert, claystone, and mudstones. Mid-Miocene to Recent compression, related to continental collision, reactivated faults and caused localized flexure. The stratigraphy of the onshore Bonaparte Basin is divided into Cambro-Ordovician and Middle Devonian to Early Permian sections. Studies have provided insights into the basin's stratigraphy, with an update to the Permo-Carboniferous succession based on seismic interpretation, borehole data integration, field validation, and paleontological information. However, biostratigraphic subdivision of the Carboniferous section remains challenging due to poorly constrained species definitions, leading to discrepancies in the application of biozonations.

  • This Arafura Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Arafura Basin is a large intracratonic sedimentary basin along the northern continental margin of Australia. Over 90% of the basin occurs offshore in relatively shallow marine waters of the Arafura Sea, with the basin extending northwards beyond Australia's territorial claim. The southern part of the basin is onshore in northern Arnhem Land. Older Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic rocks of the northern Macarthur Basin underlie most of the onshore basin, whereas Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments of the Money Shoal Basin unconformably overlie the offshore basin. The sedimentary record of the Arafura Basin spans greater than 250 million years, from the late Neoproterozoic to the early Permian. However, subsidence was episodic and restricted to four main phases of regional subsidence interspersed with relatively long periods of tectonic quiescence. Consequently, the entire sedimentary succession of the basin is relatively structurally conformable. The oldest rocks are the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Wessel Group. These are overlain by the Middle Cambrian to early Ordovician Goulburn Group, followed by the Late Devonian Arafura Group. The uppermost sequence is Late Carboniferous to early Permian (an equivalent of the Kulshill Group from the neighbouring Bonaparte Basin). The sedimentary rocks of the Arafura Basin are clastic-dominated and include sandstone, shale, limestone, dolostone and minor coal and glacial deposits. Most of the Arafura Basin formed within shallow marine environments, with evidence for fluvial conditions largely restricted to the Carboniferous to Permian rocks. There are no detailed basin-scale studies on the hydrogeology and groundwater systems of the Arafura Basin. Previous hydrogeological investigations by the Northern Territory Government during the 1980s and 1990s focused on groundwater supplies for remote communities such as Maningrida, Galiwinku and Millingimbi. Groundwater for these communities is sourced from fractured rock sandstone aquifers, most likely units of the Arafura Basin such as the Marchinbar Sandstone and Elcho Island Formation of the Wessel Group. The aquifers are fractured and extensively weathered up to 100 metres below surface.

  • This South Nicholson Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. This South Nicholson Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The South Nicholson Basin is a Mesoproterozoic sedimentary basin spanning Queensland and the Northern Territory and is bordered by neighbouring provinces and basins. The basin unconformably overlies the Lawn Hill Platform of the Mount Isa Province to the east, is bound by the Warramunga and Davenport provinces to the south-west, the Murphy Province to the north and the McArthur Basin to the north-west. It extends southwards under younger cover sequences. Rock units in the basin are correlated with the Roper Group in the McArthur Basin, forming the 'Roper Superbasin.' The underlying Mount Isa Province contains potential shale gas resources. The basin mainly consists of sandstone- and siltstone-bearing units, including the South Nicholson Group, with a prevailing east to east-northeast structural grain. Mild deformation includes shallowly plunging fold axes and numerous faults along a north-west to south-east shortening direction. Major geological events affecting the South Nicholson Basin region include the formation of the Murphy Province's metamorphic and igneous rocks around 1850 million years ago (Ma). The Mount Isa Province experienced deposition in the Leichhardt Superbasin (1800 to 1750 Ma) and Calvert Superbasin (1725 to 1690 Ma). The Isa Superbasin, with extensional growth faulting in the Carrara Sub-basin (~1640 Ma), deposited sediments from approximately 1670 to 1590 Ma. Subsequently, the South Nicholson Group was deposited around 1500 to 1430 Ma, followed by the Georgina Basin's sedimentation. The basin shows potential for sandstone-type uranium, base metals, iron ore, and petroleum resources, while unconventional shale and tight gas resources remain largely unexplored. The Constance Sandstone holds promise as a petroleum reservoir, and the Mullera Formation and Crow Formation serve as potential seals.

  • This Karumba Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Karumba Basin is a shallow geological basin in Queensland, Australia, composed of sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated sediments that cover the Mesozoic Carpentaria Basin. Deposition started during the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleocene and has continued into the Holocene. The basin extends from western Cape York Peninsula into the Gulf of Carpentaria, where it connects with Cenozoic sediment deposits in Papua New Guinea. Although the sediments in both areas share lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic similarities, their tectonic histories differ. The basin's structural geology is relatively uniform, with a significant downwarp known as the Gilbert-Mitchell Trough in Cape York Peninsula and another depocenter offshore in the Gulf of Carpentaria. The depositional history and stratigraphy of the Karumba Basin can be divided into three cycles of deposition, erosion, weathering, and the formation of stratigraphic units. The earliest cycle (the Bulimba Cycle) began in the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleocene, with episodes of significant uplift along the eastern margins of the basin. This resulted in the deposition of the Bulimba Formation and the Weipa Beds, primarily consisting of claystone, sandstone, conglomerate, and siltstone with minor coal layers. This cycle was followed by a period of planation and deep weathering, creating the Aurukun Surface. The second cycle (the Wyaaba Cycle) was initiated by large-scale earth movements along the Great Dividing Ranges, forming much of the eastern boundary of the Karumba Basin, and leading to the formation of the Wyaaba beds and other equivalent units. These beds consist mainly of fluvial to paralic clay-rich sandstone, conglomerate, siltstone, and claystone. In the south-west, Oligocene to Pliocene limestone deposits also formed in lacustrine settings, and were sourced from and deposited upon the underlying Georgina Basin. The cycle ended with ensuing periods of erosion and weathering and the development of the Pliocene Kendall Surface, as well as widespread basaltic volcanism. The final cycle (the Claraville Cycle) started in the Pliocene and continues to the present. It has experienced several episodes of uplift and deposition controlled by sea level change, climate variability and volcanism in the south. The Claraville beds are unconsolidated sediments, chiefly comprised of clayey quartzose sand and mud with minor gravels, reaching approximately 148 m thickness offshore, and approximately 70 m onshore. As this cycle is still ongoing, no terminal surface has been formed, and most units consist of unconsolidated surficial sediments.

  • This Western Australian Fractured Rock Province dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The geological evolution of Australia can be summarised as a west-to-east growth pattern, resulting from the assembly and disintegration of several supercontinents since the Archean era. The oldest rocks are found in Western Australia, specifically within the Western Australia fractured rock province, which consists of two crustal elements: the West Australian Element and the Pinjarra Element. The Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons in the West Australian Element host the oldest rocks in continental Australia, featuring high-grade gneiss belts, granite-greenstone belts, and significant gold and iron ore deposits. The Yilgarn Craton is older in the west and can be divided into several terranes, with the eastern regions hosting world-class gold deposits. The Pilbara Craton, on the other hand, consists of granitoid-greenstone terrain and is rich in banded iron formations, leading to the world's richest iron ore deposits in the Hamersley Basin. The Gascoyne Province forms the medium- to high-grade metamorphic core of the orogeny in the West Australian Element. The Albany-Fraser Orogen and Paterson Orogen joined the West Australian Element with the South Australian and North Australian Elements, respectively, and are characterised by metamorphosed rocks of various facies. The Pinjarra Orogen, situated to the west of the Yilgarn-Pilbara block, contains granulite and amphibolite facies orthogneisses. In the Phanerozoic era, sedimentary cover occurred in various large and smaller basins in Western Australia. The West Australian Element, along with the adjoining orogens, is treated as the West Australian fractured rock province, primarily reliant on weathered and fractured zones for groundwater storage due to low permeability. These cratons and orogens have been exposed since the Precambrian or Late Palaeozoic era, experiencing substantial weathering and river valley development. Modern palaeovalleys are mainly infilled with Cenozoic sediments, while arid conditions have reduced active watercourses, leading to an abundance of Aeolian sand cover. Many of these palaeovalleys are no longer active as rivers but can still be identified topographically. Overall, the geological history of Australia reveals a complex and diverse landscape, with Western Australia playing a significant role in hosting some of the continent's oldest rocks and valuable mineral deposits.

  • This Eromanga Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Eromanga Basin, part of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) in Australia, is an extensive Mesozoic sedimentary basin filled with a mix of non-marine and marine rocks. The GAB covers about 22% of the Australian land surface, including areas in Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, and the Northern Territory. The Eromanga Basin is the largest among the basins that form the GAB. Spanning over 1,250,000 square kilometres in central and eastern Australia, the Eromanga Basin contains rocks ranging from Jurassic to Cretaceous in age. The sedimentary deposits consist of three main basin successions: Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous fluvial and lacustrine, Early to mid-Cretaceous marine, and Late Cretaceous fluvial-lacustrine successions. The basin's stratigraphic architecture results from a complex interplay between subsidence-controlled accommodation, sediment supply rates, and changing sediment provenance. These controls were influenced by various factors, such as intra-plate stress fields, eustatic sea-level fluctuations, and dynamic mantle-driven topography during the breakup of the Gondwana supercontinent. During the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, regional uplift of the Australian continent led to an influx of fluvial sand-rich sediments in the western Eromanga Basin. Subsequent rapid subsidence and global high sea levels during the Early Cretaceous allowed marine sediments to spread across much of Australia, including the Eromanga Basin. The basin later returned to non-marine sedimentation during the Late Cretaceous with deposition of the Winton Formation, followed by closure due to an east-directed Late Cretaceous compressional event. This rapid deposition of the Late Cretaceous Winton Formation played a crucial role in generating and expelling hydrocarbons from various source intervals. The movement of the Australian continent significantly impacted the basin, causing most tectonic activity to occur on the southern side of a prominent keel near Innamincka in the southern half of the GAB. Additionally, variations in the mechanical properties of the sub-lithospheric mantle affected stress distribution, leading to changes in surface elevation and the expression of discharge from aquifers, potentially influencing the location and pattern of spring sites within the South Australian part of the GAB.