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  • This Galilee Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. This Galilee Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Galilee Basin is a large intracratonic sedimentary basin in central Queensland. The basin contains a variably thick sequence of Late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic clastic sedimentary rocks dominated by laterally extensive sandstone, mudstone and coal. These rocks were mostly deposited in non-marine environments (rivers, swamps and lakes), although there is minor evidence for marginal marine settings such as deltas and estuaries. Sedimentation did not occur continuously across the approximately 90 million year history of basin development, and intervals of episodic compression, uplift and erosion were marked by distinct depositional breaks. Over much of the surface area of the Galilee Basin the main aquifers targeted for groundwater extraction occur in the younger rocks and sediments that overlie the deeper sequence of the Galilee Basin. The primary aquifers that supply groundwater in this region are those of the Eromanga Basin, as well as more localised deposits of Cenozoic alluvium. However, in the central-east and north-east of the Galilee Basin, the Carboniferous to Triassic rocks occur at or close to surface and several aquifer units supply significant volumes of groundwater to support pastoral and town water supplies, as well as being the water source for several spring complexes. The three main groundwater systems identified in the Galilee Basin occur in the 1. Clematis Group aquifer, 2. partial aquifer of the upper Permian coal measures (including the Betts Creek beds and Colinlea Sandstone), and 3. aquifers of the basal Joe Joe Group. The main hydrogeological units that confine regional groundwater flow in the Galilee Basin are (from upper- to lower-most) the Moolayember Formation, Rewan Formation, Jochmus Formation and Jericho Formation. However, some bores may tap local groundwater resources within these regional aquitards in areas where they outcrop or occur close to surface. Such areas of localised partial aquifer potential may be due in part to enhanced groundwater storage due to weathering and fracturing.

  • This Eromanga Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Eromanga Basin, part of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) in Australia, is an extensive Mesozoic sedimentary basin filled with a mix of non-marine and marine rocks. The GAB covers about 22% of the Australian land surface, including areas in Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, and the Northern Territory. The Eromanga Basin is the largest among the basins that form the GAB. Spanning over 1,250,000 square kilometres in central and eastern Australia, the Eromanga Basin contains rocks ranging from Jurassic to Cretaceous in age. The sedimentary deposits consist of three main basin successions: Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous fluvial and lacustrine, Early to mid-Cretaceous marine, and Late Cretaceous fluvial-lacustrine successions. The basin's stratigraphic architecture results from a complex interplay between subsidence-controlled accommodation, sediment supply rates, and changing sediment provenance. These controls were influenced by various factors, such as intra-plate stress fields, eustatic sea-level fluctuations, and dynamic mantle-driven topography during the breakup of the Gondwana supercontinent. During the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, regional uplift of the Australian continent led to an influx of fluvial sand-rich sediments in the western Eromanga Basin. Subsequent rapid subsidence and global high sea levels during the Early Cretaceous allowed marine sediments to spread across much of Australia, including the Eromanga Basin. The basin later returned to non-marine sedimentation during the Late Cretaceous with deposition of the Winton Formation, followed by closure due to an east-directed Late Cretaceous compressional event. This rapid deposition of the Late Cretaceous Winton Formation played a crucial role in generating and expelling hydrocarbons from various source intervals. The movement of the Australian continent significantly impacted the basin, causing most tectonic activity to occur on the southern side of a prominent keel near Innamincka in the southern half of the GAB. Additionally, variations in the mechanical properties of the sub-lithospheric mantle affected stress distribution, leading to changes in surface elevation and the expression of discharge from aquifers, potentially influencing the location and pattern of spring sites within the South Australian part of the GAB.

  • This Laura Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Laura Basin contains sedimentary rocks deposited between 168 and 102 million years ago during the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. The basin extends offshore beneath the Great Barrier Reef, and forms a bowl-shaped geologic feature. The strata have a maximum thickness of about 1,000 m in the north-central part of the onshore basin. Three main stratigraphic units comprise the stratigraphic succession of the Laura Basin, these being the Rolling Downs Group (Late Aptian to Albian, Cretaceous), the Gilbert River Formation (Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic) and the Dalrymple Sandstone (Upper to Middle Jurassic). The Rolling Downs Group was deposited in a shallow marine environment and has a basal shale unit (the Wallumbilla Formation) with minor siltstone and conglomerate bands overlain by marine silty and sandy claystone. The Gilbert River Formation was deposited in lagoonal to marginal marine environments and is dominated by clay-rich sandstone that is locally glauconitic and interbedded with minor calcareous siltstone, claystone and conglomerate. The Dalrymple Sandstone was deposited in lagoonal and fluvial environments and is dominated by sandstone with lesser claystone, siltstone, conglomerate, tuff and coal. The Laura Basin overlies older rocks of the Permian to Triassic Lakefield Basin, which extends northwards into surrounding marine waters, the Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Hodgkinson region, associated with the Mossman Orogen, and Proterozoic basement rocks.

  • This South-east Australian Fractured Rock Province dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. Groundwater in Australia's fractured rock aquifers is stored in fractures, joints, bedding planes, and cavities within the rock mass, comprising about 40% of the country's groundwater. Much of this water can be utilized for irrigation, town water supplies, stock watering, and domestic use, based on state regulations. Fractured systems account for approximately 33% of all bores in Australia but contribute to only 10% of total extraction due to variable groundwater yield. Quantifying groundwater movement in fractured rock systems is challenging, as it depends on the distribution of major fractures. Groundwater flow direction is more influenced by the orientation of fractures than hydraulic head distribution. Recharge in fractured rock aquifers is typically localized and intermediate. In Eastern Australia, New South Wales' Lachlan Orogen, which extends from central and eastern New South Wales to Victoria and Tasmania, is a significant region with diverse lithological units, including deep marine turbidites, shallow marine to sub-areal sediments, extensive granite bodies, and volcano-intrusive complexes. This region contains various mineral deposits, such as orogenic gold, volcanic-hosted massive sulphide, sediment-hosted Cu-Au, porphyry Au-Cu, and granite-related Sn. Note: The study does not include additional Orogens in the east (New England) and west (Thomson and Delamerian). The Delamerian Orogen is present throughout western Tasmania.

  • This Wiso Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Wiso Basin, a large intra-cratonic basin in the central Northern Territory, covers about 140,000 square kilometres and is part of the Centralian Superbasin. It is bounded by the Tennant and Tanami regions to the east and west, while a thrust fault separates it from the Arunta Region to the south. The basin adjoins the Georgina Basin in the southeast and joins the Daly and Georgina basins beneath the Cretaceous strata of the Carpentaria Basin in the north. The basin contains a relatively flat, undeformed succession of strata that gently dip towards the main depo-centre, the Lander Trough. About 80% of the basin consists of shallow middle Cambrian strata, while the remaining portion is within the Lander Trough, containing a diverse succession of Cambrian, Ordovician, and Devonian units. The depositional history and stratigraphy reveal that early Cambrian saw widespread basaltic volcanism, with the Antrim Plateau Volcanics forming the base layer and aquitard of the Wiso Basin. The middle Cambrian deposits include the Montejinni Limestone, the oldest sedimentary unit, followed by the Hooker Creek Formation and the Lothari Hills Sandstone. The uppermost Cambrian unit is the Point Wakefield beds. The Ordovician deposits consist of the Hansen River beds, primarily composed of fossiliferous sandstone and siltstone deposited in shallow marine environments. The Devonian unit capping the basin is the Lake Surprise Sandstone, found in the Lander Trough area, formed in shallow marine, shoreline, and fluvial environments during the Alice Springs Orogeny. Three main hypotheses have been proposed for the formation of the Lander Trough: a large crustal downwarp before thrusting of Paleoproterozoic rocks, the formation of a half-graben by faulting along the southern boundary, or the formation of two en-echelon synclines by vertical block movement. While the majority of the Wiso Basin consists of shallow middle Cambrian rocks, the Lander Trough presents a more varied stratigraphic sequence, holding potential for Neoproterozoic and early Cambrian rocks. However, further drilling is needed to verify this. The presence of similar units in neighbouring basins provides valuable insight into the basin's geological history and development.

  • This Otway Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Otway Basin is an elongated sedimentary basin located on the south-east continental margin of Australia. Covering approximately 150,000 square kilometres and stretching about 500 km from South Australia's Cape Jaffa to Victoria's Port Phillip Bay and Tasmania's north-west, most of the basin is offshore, with a smaller portion onshore. Geological studies of the Otway Basin have primarily focused on its hydrocarbon prospectivity, examining thick Cretaceous aged rocks both onshore and offshore. However, the shallower onshore sedimentary units are more relevant from a groundwater perspective. The basin's formation began with rifting between the Australian and Antarctic plates during the Late Jurassic, leading to regional subsidence and the development of the elongated sedimentary basin. Following the Cretaceous plate breakup, a passive margin basin formed, which subsequently underwent basin inversion, reverse faulting, and folding, interspersed with extensional periods and normal faulting. This complex evolution, combined with sea level variations and volcanic activity, resulted in numerous sedimentary cycles. The sedimentary succession in the basin comprises non-marine sediments and volcanic rocks from the Jurassic and early Cretaceous, with a period of tectonic compression interrupting sedimentation during the mid-Cretaceous. The late Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks form the primary groundwater-bearing aquifers of the basin, with various sedimentary environments developing in the Neogene and Quaternary. The basin's structural geology is intricate, with numerous basement highs, sub-basins, troughs, and embayments. Fault systems are prevalent, separating tectonic blocks and potentially influencing groundwater flow, offering conduits for inter-aquifer connectivity. Overall, the Otway Basin's geological history has shaped its hydrocarbon potential and groundwater resources, making it an essential area for ongoing research and exploration in Australia's geological landscape.

  • This Karumba Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Karumba Basin is a shallow geological basin in Queensland, Australia, composed of sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated sediments that cover the Mesozoic Carpentaria Basin. Deposition started during the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleocene and has continued into the Holocene. The basin extends from western Cape York Peninsula into the Gulf of Carpentaria, where it connects with Cenozoic sediment deposits in Papua New Guinea. Although the sediments in both areas share lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic similarities, their tectonic histories differ. The basin's structural geology is relatively uniform, with a significant downwarp known as the Gilbert-Mitchell Trough in Cape York Peninsula and another depocenter offshore in the Gulf of Carpentaria. The depositional history and stratigraphy of the Karumba Basin can be divided into three cycles of deposition, erosion, weathering, and the formation of stratigraphic units. The earliest cycle (the Bulimba Cycle) began in the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleocene, with episodes of significant uplift along the eastern margins of the basin. This resulted in the deposition of the Bulimba Formation and the Weipa Beds, primarily consisting of claystone, sandstone, conglomerate, and siltstone with minor coal layers. This cycle was followed by a period of planation and deep weathering, creating the Aurukun Surface. The second cycle (the Wyaaba Cycle) was initiated by large-scale earth movements along the Great Dividing Ranges, forming much of the eastern boundary of the Karumba Basin, and leading to the formation of the Wyaaba beds and other equivalent units. These beds consist mainly of fluvial to paralic clay-rich sandstone, conglomerate, siltstone, and claystone. In the south-west, Oligocene to Pliocene limestone deposits also formed in lacustrine settings, and were sourced from and deposited upon the underlying Georgina Basin. The cycle ended with ensuing periods of erosion and weathering and the development of the Pliocene Kendall Surface, as well as widespread basaltic volcanism. The final cycle (the Claraville Cycle) started in the Pliocene and continues to the present. It has experienced several episodes of uplift and deposition controlled by sea level change, climate variability and volcanism in the south. The Claraville beds are unconsolidated sediments, chiefly comprised of clayey quartzose sand and mud with minor gravels, reaching approximately 148 m thickness offshore, and approximately 70 m onshore. As this cycle is still ongoing, no terminal surface has been formed, and most units consist of unconsolidated surficial sediments.

  • This South Australian Gulf and Yorke Cenozoic Basins dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The South Australian Gulf and Yorke Cenozoic basins consist of eleven separate basins with similar sediments. These relatively small to moderate-sized basins overlies older rocks from the Permian, Cambrian, or Precambrian periods and are often bounded by north-trending faults or basement highs. The largest basins, Torrens, Pirie, and Saint Vincent, share boundaries. The Torrens and Pirie basins are fault-bounded structural depressions linked to the Torrens Hinge Zone, while the Saint Vincent basin is a fault-bounded intra-cratonic graben. Smaller isolated basins include Carribie and Para Wurlie near the Yorke Peninsula, and Willochra and Walloway in the southern Flinders Ranges. The Barossa Basin, Hindmarsh Tiers, Myponga, and Meadows basins are in the Adelaide region. These basins resulted from tectonic movements during the Eocene Australian-Antarctic separation, with many forming in the late Oligocene. Sediment deposition occurred during the Oligocene to Holocene, with various environments influenced by marine transgressions and regressions. The well-studied Saint Vincent Basin contains diverse sediments deposited in fluvial, alluvial, deltaic, swamp, marine, littoral, beach, and colluvial settings, with over 30 major shoreline migrations. Eocene deposition formed fluvio-deltaic lignite and sand deposits, before transitioning to deeper marine settings. The Oligocene and Miocene saw limestone, calcarenite, and clay deposition, overlain by Pliocene marine sands and limestones. The uppermost sequences include interbedded Pliocene to Pleistocene limestone, sand, gravel, and clay, as well as Pleistocene clay with minor sand lenses, and Holocene to modern coastal deposits. The sediment thickness varies from less than 50 m to approximately 600 m, with the Saint Vincent Basin having the most substantial infill. Some basins were previously connected to the Saint Vincent Basin's marine depositional systems but later separated due to tectonic movements.

  • This Central Australian Fractured Rock Province dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Mesoproterozoic Musgrave Province is a significant geological feature in Central Australia, covering around 130,000 square kilometres across the tri-border region of Northern Territory, South Australia, and eastern Western Australia. It is characterized by east-west trending, metamorphosed igneous rocks, including granites, intrusions, and volcanics. The province experienced various deformation events, including the Mount West Orogeny and Musgravian Orogeny, resulting in the emplacement of granites and high-grade metamorphism. The Ngaanyatjarra Rift (1090 to 1040 Ma) is a failed intracontinental rift that formed due to magmatism-induced extension. The associated Giles Event was characterised by mafic to ultra-mafic intrusions (Giles Suite), bimodal volcanism and rift sedimentation (Bentley Supergroup), granitic intrusions and dyke emplacement. The Giles Event was followed by the emplacement of dolerite dykes including the Kullal Dyke Suite and the Amata Dolerite, approximately 1000 Ma and 825 Ma. The Peterman Orogeny played a crucial role in shaping the geological architecture of the Musgrave Province, forming the distinctive east-to-west-directed ranges.

  • This Arafura Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Arafura Basin is a large intracratonic sedimentary basin along the northern continental margin of Australia. Over 90% of the basin occurs offshore in relatively shallow marine waters of the Arafura Sea, with the basin extending northwards beyond Australia's territorial claim. The southern part of the basin is onshore in northern Arnhem Land. Older Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic rocks of the northern Macarthur Basin underlie most of the onshore basin, whereas Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments of the Money Shoal Basin unconformably overlie the offshore basin. The sedimentary record of the Arafura Basin spans greater than 250 million years, from the late Neoproterozoic to the early Permian. However, subsidence was episodic and restricted to four main phases of regional subsidence interspersed with relatively long periods of tectonic quiescence. Consequently, the entire sedimentary succession of the basin is relatively structurally conformable. The oldest rocks are the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Wessel Group. These are overlain by the Middle Cambrian to early Ordovician Goulburn Group, followed by the Late Devonian Arafura Group. The uppermost sequence is Late Carboniferous to early Permian (an equivalent of the Kulshill Group from the neighbouring Bonaparte Basin). The sedimentary rocks of the Arafura Basin are clastic-dominated and include sandstone, shale, limestone, dolostone and minor coal and glacial deposits. Most of the Arafura Basin formed within shallow marine environments, with evidence for fluvial conditions largely restricted to the Carboniferous to Permian rocks. There are no detailed basin-scale studies on the hydrogeology and groundwater systems of the Arafura Basin. Previous hydrogeological investigations by the Northern Territory Government during the 1980s and 1990s focused on groundwater supplies for remote communities such as Maningrida, Galiwinku and Millingimbi. Groundwater for these communities is sourced from fractured rock sandstone aquifers, most likely units of the Arafura Basin such as the Marchinbar Sandstone and Elcho Island Formation of the Wessel Group. The aquifers are fractured and extensively weathered up to 100 metres below surface.