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  • This dataset includes point estimates of groundwater recharge in mm/year. Recharge rates have been estimated at monitoring bore locations in the basaltic aquifers of the Nulla and McBride basalt provinces. Recharge estimates have been calculated using the “chloride mass balance” method. The chloride mass balance process assumes that the chloride ion is a conservative tracer in precipitation, evapotranspiration, recharge and runoff; and that all the chloride is from rainfall, instead of for example halite saturation or dissolution processes. So the volumetric water balance and the flux of chloride balance must both be true. Assuming that runoff and evapotranspiration are negligible (so approximated by zero), the equation is simplified: Water balance P=ET+R+Q Water balance multiplied by chloride concentrations (chloridefluxbalance) P∙Cl_ppt=ET∙Cl_ET+R∙Cl_gw+Q∙Cl_riv | ΔCl_reac≈0 Assumptions to simplify equation P∙Cl_ppt=R∙Cl_gw | Q≈0 & ET≈0 Rearranging for recharge rate (unknown) R=P∙(Cl_ppt)/(Cl_gw ) | Q≈0 & ET≈0 Where P = precipitation rate; ET = evapotranspiration rate; R = recharge rate; Q = runoff to streams; Clppt = concentration of Cl in precipitation; ClET = concentration of chloride in evapotranspiration; Clgw = concentration of Cl in groundwater; Clriv = concentration of chloride in river runoff; ΔClreac = change in chloride concentrations from reactions.

  • This grid dataset is an estimation of the relative surface potential for recharge within the Nulla Basalt Province. This process combined numerous factors together as to highlight the areas likely to have higher potential for recharge to occur. Soil permeability and surface geology are the primary inputs. Vegetation and slope were excluded from consideration, as these were considered to add too much complexity. Furthermore, this model does not include rainfall intensity – although this is known to vary spatially through average rainfall grids, this model is a depiction of the ground ability for recharge to occur should a significant rainfall event occur in each location. The relative surface potential recharge presented is estimated through a combination of soil and geological factors, weighting regions that are considered likely to have greater potential for recharge (e.g. younger basalts, vent-proximal facies, and highly permeable soils). Near-surface permeability of soil layers has been considered as a quantified input to the ability for water to infiltrate soil strata. It was hypothesised that locations proximal to volcanic vents would be preferential recharge sites, due to deeply penetrative columnar jointing. This suggestion is based on observations in South Iceland, where fully-penetrating columnar joint sets are more prevalent in proximal facies compared to distal facies in South Iceland (Bergh & Sigvaldson 1991). To incorporate this concept, preferential recharge sites are assumed to be within the polygons of vent-proximal facies as derived from detailed geological mapping datasets. Remaining geology has been categorised to provide higher potential recharge through younger lava flows. As such, a ranking between geological units has been used to provide the variation in potential recharge estimates. <b>Reference</b> Bergh, S. G., & Sigvaldason, G. E. (1991). Pleistocene mass-flow deposits of basaltic hyaloclastite on a shallow submarine shelf, South Iceland. Bulletin of Volcanology, 53(8), 597-611. doi:10.1007/bf00493688

  • The Upper Burdekin Chloride Mass Balance Recharge web service depicts the recharge rates have been estimated at borehole locations in the Nulla and McBride basalt provinces. Using rainfall rates, rainfall chemistry and groundwater chemistry, the recharge rates have been estimated through the Chloride Mass Balance approach.

  • <p>The Exploring for the Future (EFTF) initiative aims to reduce the technical risk of mineral exploration by providing pre-competitive data and information to support investment and mineral exploration in northern Australia – a key part of ensuring Australia's future economic prosperity. <p>To support the EFTF initiative, the presence of hydrothermal alteration systems associated with iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits were estimated throughout the Tennant Creek -– Mt Isa Project area of northern Australia. These zones are of economic interest due to their potential to host copper, gold, uranium and rare earth element mineralisation. <p>To predict the presence of IOCG-related alteration, gravity and magnetic intensity data were used to produce 3D models of density and magnetic susceptibility, respectively. The inversion models provide an indication of the volume and distribution of these physical properties within the subsurface and were used to define volumes with relatively high densities and high magnetic susceptibilities as proxies for magnetite-rich alteration and volumes with high density, but low magnetic susceptibility, as proxies for hematite-rich alteration. <p>Contact zones between these two sets of volumes are considered to be the most favourable areas for potential IOCG mineralisation. However, the inversion modelling inevitably will have mapped a number of ‘false positives’, which will require more detailed inversion modelling and/or other data sets to discriminate these from true IOCG-related alteration.

  • This grid dataset is an estimation of the relative surface potential for recharge within the McBride Basalt Province. This process combined numerous factors together as to highlight the areas likely to have higher potential for recharge to occur. Soil permeability and surface geology are the primary inputs. Vegetation and slope were excluded from consideration, as these were considered to add too much complexity. Furthermore, this model does not include rainfall intensity – although this is known to vary spatially through average rainfall grids, this model is a depiction of the ground ability for recharge to occur should a significant rainfall event occur in each location. The relative surface potential recharge presented is estimated through a combination of soil and geological factors, weighting regions that are considered likely to have greater potential for recharge (e.g. younger basalts, vent-proximal facies, and highly permeable soils). Near-surface permeability of soil layers has been considered as a quantified input to the ability for water to infiltrate soil strata. It was hypothesised that locations proximal to volcanic vents would be preferential recharge sites, due to deeply penetrative columnar jointing. This suggestion is based on observations in South Iceland, where fully-penetrating columnar joint sets are more prevalent in proximal facies compared to distal facies in South Iceland (Bergh & Sigvaldson 1991). To incorporate this concept, preferential recharge sites are assumed to be within the polygons of vent-proximal facies as derived from detailed geological mapping datasets. Remaining geology has been categorised to provide higher potential recharge through younger lava flows. As such, a ranking between geological units has been used to provide the variation in potential recharge estimates. <b>References</b> Bergh, S. G., & Sigvaldason, G. E. (1991). Pleistocene mass-flow deposits of basaltic hyaloclastite on a shallow submarine shelf, South Iceland. Bulletin of Volcanology, 53(8), 597-611. doi:10.1007/bf00493688

  • The Upper Burdekin Chloride Mass Balance Recharge web service depicts the recharge rates have been estimated at borehole locations in the Nulla and McBride basalt provinces. Using rainfall rates, rainfall chemistry and groundwater chemistry, the recharge rates have been estimated through the Chloride Mass Balance approach.

  • As part of the Exploring for the Future program, whole-of-crust 3D gravity and magnetic inversion models have been produced for an area encompassing the North Australia Craton. These models were created to aid 3D geological mapping and identification of large-scale mineral systems such as those associated with iron oxide copper-gold deposits. The inversion models were derived using the University of British Columbia - Geophysical Inversion Facility MAG3D and GRAV3D programs. The inversions were constrained with geological reference models that had layers for Phanerozoic sediments, Proterozoic sediments, undifferentiated crust and the mantle. The reference model for the magnetic inversion incorporated a Curie depth surface below which magnetic susceptibility was set to zero. To allow cross-referencing, both the density and magnetic susceptibility models were designed to occupy the same physical space with identical volumes and cell sizes. A horizontal cell size of 1 km was used with 61 vertical layers, whose thickness increased with depth. The area of interest is 2450 km by 1600 km and extends to a depth of 70 km below the geoid, resulting in a total volume with ~239 million cells. Ultimately, it was not possible to invert a model of this size. Instead, the volume was broken down into a grid of overlapping tiles with 8 rows and 10 columns. Each tile was independently inverted before being recombined into a single coherent output model. When the overall model was reconstructed using the core region of each tile, some low-level edge effects were observed, increasing in significance with depth. These effects were satisfactorily attenuated by applying cosine weighting from the centre of each tile out to the edge of the overlap region during reconstruction. The coincident density and magnetic susceptibility models show a relationship with known iron oxide copper-gold deposits and regions of >2.80 g/cm3 and >0.01 SI in the Tennant Creek and Cloncurry regions. It is suggested that these regions of high-density and high-magnetic susceptibility are related to the magnetite-forming hydrothermal alteration stages of an iron oxide copper-gold deposit. The success of the NAC modelling exercise has demonstrated that this method can be expanded to produce coincident gravity and magnetic inversion models for the entire Australian region. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DOWNLOADS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Input Data: The input gravity, magnetic and elevation data (.ers and .tif). Geological Reference Models: The geological reference model as surfaces and 3D volumes (.sg, .ts, and UBCGIF). Observed vs Predicted Data: The input gravity/magnetic data compared to the predicted data (.png). Recombined Models: The recombined (cosine weighted) density and magnetic susceptibility models (.sg, and UBCGIF). Magnetite Proxies: Proxies for magnetite alteration related to IOCG deposits (.ers). Video: Video describing the method and results (.mp4).