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  • This Carnarvon Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Carnarvon Basin is a large sedimentary basin covering the western and north-western coast of Western Australia, stretching over 1,000 km from Geraldton to Karratha. It is predominantly offshore, with over 80% of the basin located in water depths of up to 4,500 m. The basin is elongated north to south and connects to the Perth Basin in the south and the offshore Canning Basin in the north-east. It is underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement rocks. The Carnarvon Basin consists of two distinct parts. The southern portion comprises onshore sub-basins with mainly Paleozoic sedimentary rocks extending up to 300 km inland, while the northern section consists of offshore sub-basins containing Mesozoic, Cenozoic, and Paleozoic sequences. The geological evolution of the Southern Carnarvon Basin was shaped by multiple extensional episodes related to the breakup of Gondwana and reactivation of Archean and Proterozoic structures. The collision between Australia and Eurasia in the Mid-Miocene caused significant fault reactivation and inversion. The onshore region experienced arid conditions, leading to the formation of calcrete, followed by alluvial and eolian deposition and continued calcareous deposition offshore. The Northern Carnarvon Basin contains up to 15,000 m of sedimentary infill, primarily composed of siliciclastic deltaic to marine sediments from the Triassic to Early Cretaceous and shelf carbonates from the Mid-Cretaceous to Cenozoic. The basin is a significant hydrocarbon province, with most of the resources found within Upper Triassic, Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs. The basin's development occurred during four successive periods of extension and thermal subsidence, resulting in the formation of various sub-basins and structural highs. Overall, the Carnarvon Basin is a geologically complex region with a rich sedimentary history and significant hydrocarbon resources. Exploration drilling has been ongoing since 1953, with numerous wells drilled to unlock its hydrocarbon potential.

  • This Bonaparte Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Bonaparte Basin is a large sedimentary basin off the north-west coast of Australia, encompassing both offshore and onshore areas. It has undergone multiple phases of extension, deposition, and tectonic inversion from the Paleozoic to Cenozoic periods. The Petrel Sub-basin, situated on the eastern margin, exhibits a north-west trending graben/syncline and exposes lower Paleozoic rocks onshore while transitioning to upper Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic sediments offshore. Onshore, the basin's geological structures reflect two dominant regimes: north to north-north-east trending Proterozoic basement structures associated with the Halls Creek Mobile Zone, and north-north-west trending basin structures linked to the rifting and later compressional reactivation of the Petrel Sub-basin. The Petrel Sub-basin has experienced growth and tectonic inversion since the Paleozoic, marked by volcanic activity, deposition of clastics and carbonates, and extension events. During the Devonian, extension occurred along faults in the Ningbing Range, leading to the deposition of clastics and carbonates. The Carboniferous to Permian period witnessed offshore extension associated with the Westralian Superbasin initiation, while onshore deposition continued in shallow marine and transitional environments. Thermal subsidence diminished in the Early Permian, and subsequent compression in the mid-Triassic to Early Jurassic reactivated faults, resulting in inversion anticlines and monoclines. After the Early Jurassic, the sub-basin experienced slow sag with predominantly offshore deposition. Post-Cretaceous deformation caused subsidence, and an Early Cretaceous transgression led to shallow marine conditions and the deposition of chert, claystone, and mudstones. Mid-Miocene to Recent compression, related to continental collision, reactivated faults and caused localized flexure. The stratigraphy of the onshore Bonaparte Basin is divided into Cambro-Ordovician and Middle Devonian to Early Permian sections. Studies have provided insights into the basin's stratigraphy, with an update to the Permo-Carboniferous succession based on seismic interpretation, borehole data integration, field validation, and paleontological information. However, biostratigraphic subdivision of the Carboniferous section remains challenging due to poorly constrained species definitions, leading to discrepancies in the application of biozonations.

  • This Western Australian Fractured Rock Province dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The geological evolution of Australia can be summarised as a west-to-east growth pattern, resulting from the assembly and disintegration of several supercontinents since the Archean era. The oldest rocks are found in Western Australia, specifically within the Western Australia fractured rock province, which consists of two crustal elements: the West Australian Element and the Pinjarra Element. The Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons in the West Australian Element host the oldest rocks in continental Australia, featuring high-grade gneiss belts, granite-greenstone belts, and significant gold and iron ore deposits. The Yilgarn Craton is older in the west and can be divided into several terranes, with the eastern regions hosting world-class gold deposits. The Pilbara Craton, on the other hand, consists of granitoid-greenstone terrain and is rich in banded iron formations, leading to the world's richest iron ore deposits in the Hamersley Basin. The Gascoyne Province forms the medium- to high-grade metamorphic core of the orogeny in the West Australian Element. The Albany-Fraser Orogen and Paterson Orogen joined the West Australian Element with the South Australian and North Australian Elements, respectively, and are characterised by metamorphosed rocks of various facies. The Pinjarra Orogen, situated to the west of the Yilgarn-Pilbara block, contains granulite and amphibolite facies orthogneisses. In the Phanerozoic era, sedimentary cover occurred in various large and smaller basins in Western Australia. The West Australian Element, along with the adjoining orogens, is treated as the West Australian fractured rock province, primarily reliant on weathered and fractured zones for groundwater storage due to low permeability. These cratons and orogens have been exposed since the Precambrian or Late Palaeozoic era, experiencing substantial weathering and river valley development. Modern palaeovalleys are mainly infilled with Cenozoic sediments, while arid conditions have reduced active watercourses, leading to an abundance of Aeolian sand cover. Many of these palaeovalleys are no longer active as rivers but can still be identified topographically. Overall, the geological history of Australia reveals a complex and diverse landscape, with Western Australia playing a significant role in hosting some of the continent's oldest rocks and valuable mineral deposits.

  • This Darling Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The geological Darling Basin, covering approximately 130,000 square kilometres in western New South Wales (with parts in South Australia and Victoria), is filled with over 8,000 m of mainly Devonian sedimentary rocks formed in various environments, from alluvial to marine. It sits atop regional basement structures, coinciding with boundaries between Late Paleozoic Kanmantoo, Lachlan, and Southern Thomson Fold Belts. The basin's outcrops are scarce, obscured by younger rocks and sediments. Sedimentary rocks from Late Silurian to Early Carboniferous periods make up the basin, with marine shales and fluvial quartz-rich sandstones being the most common. The Menindee and Bancannia Troughs rest unconformably over Proterozoic and Lower Paleozoic basement rocks, while eastern sub-basins onlap deformed and metamorphosed Lower Paleozoic rocks. A major tectonic shift at the end of the Ordovician transformed south-eastern Australia's palaeogeography from a marginal marine sea to deep troughs and basins. The Darling Basin's discrete sedimentary troughs formed in areas of maximum tectonic extension, including the Ivanhoe, Blantyre, Pondie Range, Nelyambo, Neckarboo, Bancannia, Menindee troughs, and Poopelloe Lake complex. Spatial variation in sedimentary facies indicates potential interconnections between the troughs. The western basin overlies Proterozoic and Lower Paleozoic rocks of the Paroo and Wonominta basement blocks, while the eastern basin onlaps folded, faulted, and metamorphosed older Paleozoic rocks of the Lachlan Fold Belt. The Darling Basin has seen limited hydrocarbon exploration, with wells mostly situated on poorly-defined structures. Indications of petroleum presence include gas seeping from water bores, potential source rocks in sparsely sampled Early Devonian units, and occasional hydrocarbon shows in wells. Reservoir units boast good porosity and permeability, while Cambrian to Ordovician carbonates and shales beneath the basin are considered potential source rocks.

  • This Clarence-Moreton Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The formation of the Clarence-Moreton Basin initiated during the Middle Triassic due to tectonic extension. This was followed by a prolonged period of thermal cooling and relaxation throughout the Late Triassic to the Cretaceous. Deposition of a non-marine sedimentary succession occurred during this time, with the Clarence-Moreton Basin now estimated to contain a sedimentary thickness of up to 4000 m. There were three main depositional centres within the basin, and these are known as the Cecil Plain Sub-basin, Laidley Sub-basin and Logan Sub-basin. The Clarence-Moreton Basin sediments were originally deposited in non-marine environments by predominantly northward flowing rivers in a relatively humid climate. The sedimentary sequences are dominated by a mixed assemblage of sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, conglomerate and coal. Changing environmental conditions due to various tectonic events resulted in deposition of interbedded sequences of fluvial, paludal (swamp) and lacustrine deposits. Within the Clarence-Moreton Basin, coal has been mined primarily from the Jurassic Walloon Coal Measures, including for the existing mines at Commodore and New Acland. However, coal deposits also occur in other units, such as the Grafton Formation, Orara Formation, Bundamba Group, Ipswich Coal Measures, and Nymboida Coal Measures. Overlying the Clarence-Moreton Basin in various locations are Paleogene and Neogene volcanic rocks, such as the Main Range Volcanics and Lamington Volcanics. The thickness of these volcanic rocks is typically several hundred metres, although the maximum thickness of the Main Range Volcanics is about 900 m. Quaternary sediments including alluvial, colluvial and coastal deposits also occur in places above the older rocks of the Clarence-Moreton Basin.

  • This Southern Australian Fractured Rock Province dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. Crustal elements are crustal-scale geological regions primarily based on composite geophysical domains, each of which shows a distinctive pattern of magnetic and gravity anomalies. These elements generally relate to the basement, rather than the sedimentary basins. The South Australian Element comprises the Archean-Mesoproterozoic Gawler Craton and Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Curnamona Province, formed over billions of years through sedimentation, volcanism, magmatism, and metamorphism. The region experienced multiple continental-continent collisions, leading to the formation and breakup of supercontinents like Nuna and Rodinia, along with periods of extensional tectonism. Around 1,400 Ma, both the Gawler Craton and Curnamona Province were cratonised, and during the building of the Rodinia supercontinent (1,300-700 Ma), the present configuration of the region emerged. The area between the Gawler and Curnamona provinces contains Neoproterozoic to Holocene cover, including the Adelaide Superbasin, with the Barossa Complex as its basement, believed to be part of the Kimban Orogen. The breakup of Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic (830-600 Ma) resulted in mafic volcanism and extensional episodes, leading to the formation of the Adelaide Superbasin, characterized by marine rift and sag basins flanking the Gawler Craton and Curnamona Province. During the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, some tectonic structures were rejuvenated, while sedimentary cover obscured much of the now flatter terrain. Metamorphic facies in the region vary, with the Gawler and Curnamona provinces reaching granulite facies, while the Adelaide Superbasin achieved the amphibolite facies. The Gawler Craton contains rocks dating back to approximately 3,150 Ma, while the Curnamona Province contains rocks from 1,720 to 1,550 Ma. These ancient regions have undergone various deformation and metamorphic events but have remained relatively stable since around 1,450 Ma. The Adelaide Superbasin is a large sedimentary system formed during the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian, with distinct provinces. It started as an intracontinental rift system resulting from the breakup of Rodinia and transitioned into a passive margin basin in the southeast and a failed rift in the north. Later uplift and re-instigated rifting led to the deposition of thick Cambrian sediments overlying the Neoproterozoic rocks. Overlying basins include late Palaeozoic to Cenozoic formations, such as the Eromanga Basin and Lake Eyre Basin, which are not part of the assessment region but are adjacent to it.

  • This Central Australian Cenozoic Basins dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. Cenozoic basins are an important source of readily accessible groundwater within the arid deserts of central Australia. This province represents a collection of six notable Cenozoic basins within the region, including the Ti Tree, Waite, Hale, Mount Wedge, Lake Lewis and Alice Farm basins. Many local communities in this region (such as Papunya, Ti Tree and Ali Curung) rely upon groundwater stored within Cenozoic basin aquifers for their water security. The basins typically contain up to several hundred metres of saturated sediments that can include relatively thick intervals of hydraulically conductive sands, silts and minor gravels. It is noted that the potential groundwater storage volumes in the Cenozoic basins are much greater than the annual amount of runoff and recharge that occurs in central Australia, making them prospective targets for groundwater development. Groundwater quality and yields are variable, although relatively good quality groundwater can be obtained at suitable yields in many areas for community water supplies, stock and domestic use and irrigated horticulture operations, for example, in the Ti Tree Basin. However, not all of the Cenozoic basins have the potential to supply good quality groundwater resources for community and horticultural supplies. With the exception of several small sub-regions, most of the Waite Basin has very little potential to supply good quality groundwater for agricultural use. This is mainly due to limited aquifer development, low yielding bores and elevated groundwater salinity (commonly >2000 mg/L Total Dissolved Solids). However, bores have been successfully installed for smaller-scale pastoral stock and domestic supplies and small communities or outstations in the Waite Basin.

  • This Canning Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Canning Basin, characterized by mostly Paleozoic sedimentary rocks with a maximum thickness of over 15,000 m, went through four major depositional phases from Early Ordovician to Early Cretaceous. The basin contains two main depocenters, the Fitzroy Trough-Gregory Sub-basin in the north and the Willara Sub-basin-Kidson Sub-basin in the south. The depositional history includes marine, evaporite, fluvial, deltaic, glacial, and non-marine environments. The basin's evolution began with extension and rapid subsidence in the Early Ordovician, followed by a sag stage with evaporite and playa conditions in the Late Ordovician and Silurian. The Devonian to Early Carboniferous phase involved marine, reef, fluvio-deltaic, and terrestrial sedimentation in the north and marginal marine to terrestrial systems in the south. The Late Carboniferous to mid-Triassic period saw non-marine and marine settings, including glacial environments. The basin then experienced mid-Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposition, mainly in deltaic and non-marine environments. Throughout its history, the Canning Basin encountered multiple tectonic phases, including extension, compression, inversion, and wrench movements, leading to various depositional settings and sediment types. Around 250 petroleum wells have been drilled in the basin, with production mainly from Permo-Carboniferous sandstones and Devonian carbonates. Several proven and untested plays, such as draped bioherms, anticlinal closures, and fault blocks, provide potential for hydrocarbon exploration. Late Carboniferous and Jurassic mafic sills intersected in wells indicate additional geological complexity. Additionally, some areas of the Canning Basin are considered suitable for CO2 storage.

  • This was the first of five presentations held on 31 July 2023 as part of the National Groundwater Systems Workshop - A clear and consistent inventory of knowledge about Australia’s major hydrogeological provinces.

  • This Murray Basin dataset contains descriptive attribute information for the areas bounded by the relevant spatial groundwater feature in the associated Hydrogeology Index map. Descriptive topics are grouped into the following themes: Location and administration; Demographics; Physical geography; Surface water; Geology; Hydrogeology; Groundwater; Groundwater management and use; Environment; Land use and industry types; and Scientific stimulus. The Murray Basin, a significant sedimentary basin in Australia, displays varying sediment thickness across its expanse, with the thickest layers concentrated in its central regions. The basin's geological evolution is characterised by distinct depositional phases. During the Paleocene to Eocene Renmark Group phase, sedimentary deposits encompass fluvial sands at the base, transitioning into paralic carbonaceous clay and lignite layers. These sediments indicate the shift from riverine to shallow marine environments, dating back to the Paleocene and Eocene periods. The Oligocene to Middle Miocene period encompasses the Ettrick Formation and Murray Group Limestone. The former includes marl, and the latter displays glauconitic grey-green marl and bryozoal limestone, revealing prevailing marine conditions during the Oligocene to Middle Miocene. In the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene Bookpurnong Formation, marine shelly dark grey clay and silt, previously known as the Bookpurnong Beds, coexist with Pliocene fluvial to marginal marine quartz sands (Loxton Sands), marking the transition back to terrestrial and nearshore marine settings. During the Late Pliocene to Pleistocene, the Blanchetown Clay, a substantial unit within Lake Bungunnia, signifies lacustrine phases. Overlying ferricretes in the central/eastern basin and the Norwest Bend Formation's oyster coquinas in the western region, the clay exhibits variable coloration and laminations. Lastly, the Pleistocene to Holocene phase witnesses river-induced reworking and erosion of underlying sediments, giving rise to the Shepparton and Coonambidgal formations. In the western Murray Basin, Cenozoic sedimentary rocks are relatively thin, typically measuring under 200-300 meters. The Renmark Trough area presents a maximum thickness of 600 meters.